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Skogskyrkogården

Skogskyrkogården

This Stockholm cemetery was created between 1917 and 1920 by two young architects, Asplund and Lewerentz, on the site of former gravel pits overgrown with pine trees. The design blends vegetation and architectural elements, taking advantage of irregularities in the site to create a landscape that is finely adapted to its function. It has had a profound influence in many countries of the world.

Skogskyrkogården

Ce cimetière de Stockholm fut aménagé de 1917 à 1920 par deux jeunes architectes, Asplund et Lewerentz, dans d'anciennes carrières de gravier plantées de pins. La conception associe la végétation aux éléments architecturaux et tire parti des accidents du terrain. Elle crée un paysage en parfaite harmonie avec sa fonction qui a exercé une profonde influence dans de nombreux pays du monde.

سكوغسكيركو غاردن

تولى ترتيب هذه المقبرة في ستوكهولم من عام 1917 حتى 1920 المهندسان المعماريان اسبلوند ولويرينتس في كسارات قديمة للحصى مزروعة بأشجار الصنوبر. ويجمع تصميم المقبرة بين النباتات والعناصر الهندسية مع الاستفادة من حوادث التربة، ويتجلى في منظر كثير التناغم مع وظيفته التي تركت أثراً بالغاً في عدد من دول العالم.

source: UNESCO/ERI

斯科斯累格加登公墓

这块位于斯德哥尔摩的公墓是由两位年轻的建筑师──阿斯普隆德和莱韦伦茨设计,建于1917-1920年。他们用砂砾铺地,地上种满了松树。这里的设计把植物、建筑特色及地形的不规则性相结合,使景观与墓地功能相融合。它对世界上许多国家的墓地设计都产生了深刻影响。

source: UNESCO/ERI

Скугсчюркогорден – «Лесное кладбише» в Стокгольме

Это кладбище в Стокгольме возникло в период 1917-1920 гг. по проекту двух молодых архитекторов Асплунда и Леверенца на месте отработанных гравийных карьеров, заросших сосновым лесом. Проект соединил эту растительность с архитектурными формами, используя преимущества неровного рельефа местности для создания ландшафта, оптимально приспособленного к функциональному назначению. Этот памятник оказал большое влияние на деятельность архитекторов во многих странах мира.

source: UNESCO/ERI

Skogskyrkogården

Este cementerio de Estocolmo fue construido entre 1917 y 1920 por dos jóvenes arquitectos, Asplund y Lewerentz, en antiguas graveras plantadas de pinos. Proyectado para combinar los elementos arquitectónicos con la vegetación y aprovechar perfectamente los accidentes del terreno, el paisaje creado se armoniza perfectamente con la función del sitio. El diseño de Skogskyrkogården ha ejercido una profunda influencia en muchos países del mundo.

source: UNESCO/ERI

スクーグシュルコゴーデン

source: NFUAJ

Skogskyrkogården

Deze begraafplaats van Stockholm werd tussen 1917 en 1920 opgericht door de architecten Asplund en Lewerentz, op de plaats waar voormalige grindgroeven overgroeid zijn met pijnbomen. De twee jonge architecten wonnen in 1912 een internationale architectuurwedstrijd voor een nieuwe begraafplaats waarvan het concept duidelijk, eenvoudig en efficiënt moest zijn. Het ontwerp van Asplund en Lewerentz combineert vegetatie en architectonische elementen, door gebruik te maken van de onregelmatigheden van het gebied. Zo werd een landschap gecreëerd dat nauwkeurig is aangepast aan zijn functie. De begraafplaats wordt gekarakteriseerd als romantisch naturalistisch en heeft mede hierdoor grote invloed gehad op ontwerpen in andere landen.

Source : unesco.nl

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Skogskyrkogården © Our Place
Description longue
[Uniquement en anglais]

The creation of Asplund and Lewerentz at Skogskyrkogården established a new form of cemetery that has exerted a profound influence on cemetery design throughout the world. It is an outstandingly successful example of a designed cultural landscape and buildings conceived as an integral whole, which blends landform and natural vegetation with architectural features to create a landscape that is ideally suited to its purpose as a cemetery.

In 1912 an international architectural competition was organized for the purpose of creating a new cemetery in a 96 ha tract of pine-clad sand and gravel with the following conditions: the basic plan must be clear, simple, and efficient without sacrificing any of its artistic merits and without undue alteration of the natural contours of the existing landscape; dignity must play an important part in the design; details should contribute to an attractive overall impression of artistic value; and the natural formation of the existing gravel pits should be used as far as possible to form valleys and glens. The first prize was awarded to two 30-year-old Swedish architects, Gunnar Asplund and Sigurd Lewerentz. The design of the cemetery stands out for its intense romantic naturalism. It turned the existing, essentially untouched, Nordic forest into the dominant experience, and it is the evocation of raw Nordic wilderness that constitutes a radical departure in landscape architecture as well as cemetery layout at this time.

Work began in 1917 and the formal consecration of the Woodland Cemetery (Skogskyrkogården): its first chapel, the Woodland Chapel, was built in 1920 and soon proved to be too small and so the Chapel of Resurrection and a service building was added between 1923 and 1925. The Stockholm Cemetery Board also introduced special restrictions regarding the size and form of gravestones in the new cemetery. In 1935 Asplund draw up a group of three chapels (Chapels of Faith, Hope, and the Holy Cross) and a crematorium complex. The huge granite cross on the lawn outside the chapels was a gift from an anonymous donor.

Unlike most of its contemporaries, Asplund and Lewerentz's cemetery design evokes a more primitive imagery. The intervention of footpaths, meandering freely through the woodland, is minimal. Graves are laid out without excessive alignment or regimentation among the natural forest. Such interventions as the architects allowed themselves, such as the reshaping of the two old gravel pits and the layout of the area round the main chapel, are effectively concealed within the virgin forest around them; yet provide a vivid contrast to them. Their sources were not 'high' architecture or landscape design but ancient and medieval Nordic burial archetypes. Nonetheless, skilful use was made of elements from Mediterranean antiquity, such as the Via Sepulchra at Pompeii, but these are not allowed to dominate the essentially Nordic whole.

The Woodland Chapel, built from wood with whitewashed walls and a shingled roof, represents both intensification and a formal disciplining of the romantic naturalism of the competition scheme. Its severity reflects Asplund's increasing interest in classicism and classical composition methods. The point of departure for the chapel, set in a grove of mature fir trees surrounded by a wall, is an indigenous vernacular landscape element, the country church surrounded by a walled graveyard. This is further evoked by the chapel's black shingle roof, but this is subtly shifted by isolating it on Tuscan columns, which give it the appearance from a distance of a wooden pyramid emerging from the surrounding trees.

The second group of chapels is designed to permit funerals to take place simultaneously. Each of the chapels has its own enclosed garden, and as a group they take full advantage of the natural landscape. The gentle slope is accentuated by the gradually descending height of the buildings to the open-air columbarium and the main gate. The largest of the chapels, Holy Cross, has a monumental hall in front of it, and adjoining this is a lily-pond. Beyond the pond is the space for open-air ceremonies. The columbarium, with niches and graves for urns, lies to the north of the chapels. Decorations inside the three chapels resulted from a competition held in 1937. They maintain the austerity that is characteristic of the entire Skogskyrkogården complex.

Source : UNESCO/CLT/WHC
Description historique

En 1912, le Conseil de la ville de Stockholm a acquis 96 hectares de sable et de graviers planté de pins dans l'intention de créer un cimetière. Un concours international a été organisé avec les contraintes suivantes : le plan de base doit être clair, simple et efficace sans sacrifier rien des mérites artistiques ni modifier sans raison les contours naturels de la forêt existante ; la dignité doit jouer un rôle primordial dans la conception ; les détails doivent contribuer à une impression générale agréable de qualité artistique ; la forme naturelle des carrières de graviers devra être utilisée autant que possible pour former les vallées et les vallons.

Le premier prix fut remporté par deux jeunes architectes suédois de 30 ans, Gunnar Asplund et Sigurd Lewerentz. Les travaux commencèrent en 1917 ; la consécration officielle du cimetière boisé et de la première chapelle (conçue par Asplund) eut lieu en 1920. Le Conseil du Cimetière de Stockholm mit en place certaines restrictions de taille et de forme concernant les pierres tombales du nouveau cimetière. La chapelle Boisée devint vite trop petite ; c'est pourquoi la chapelle de la Résurrection (conçue par Lewerentz) fut ajoutée en 1925. En 1923-1924, un bâtiment d'entretien dessiné par Asplund fut édifié.

En 1935, le conseil de la ville demanda à Asplund de dessiner le plan d'une chapelle et un crematorium juste à l'intérieur de la porte principale. Le groupe comprenait trois chapelles (chapelles de la Foi, de l'Espoir et de la Sainte-Croix), une morgue et un crematorium et fut construit en 1937-1940. L'énorme croix de granite sur la pelouse à l'extérieur des chapelles, également conçue par Asplund, est un cadeau d'un donateur anonyme.

Source : évaluation des Organisations consultatives