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Parc national des volcans d'Hawaï

Hawaii Volcanoes National Park

This site contains two of the most active volcanoes in the world, Mauna Loa (4,170 m high) and Kilauea (1,250 m high), both of which tower over the Pacific Ocean. Volcanic eruptions have created a constantly changing landscape, and the lava flows reveal surprising geological formations. Rare birds and endemic species can be found there, as well as forests of giant ferns.

Parc national des volcans d'Hawaï

Deux des volcans les plus actifs du monde, le Mauna Loa (4 170 m) et le Kilauea, y dominent l'océan Pacifique. Le paysage, qui change au gré des éruptions volcaniques et des coulées de lave, révèle de surprenantes formations géologiques. On y trouve des oiseaux rares et des espèces endémiques, ainsi que des forêts de fougères géantes.

منتزه براكين هاواي الوطني

يكتنف المنتزه بركاني لو مونا لوا (4170) ولو كيلاو الأكثر نشاطاً المطلان على المحيط الهادئ. فالمنظر الطبيعي الذي تغَيّرَ تغيُّر أهواء الإنفجارات البركانيّة وسيل الحمم يعكس تكوّنات جيولوجيّة مذهلة. وفي هذا المنتره أيضاً عصافير نادرة الوجود وأصناف مستوطنة كما غابات سرخس عملاقة.

source: UNESCO/ERI

夏威夷火山国家公园

世界上最活跃的两个活火山——冒纳罗亚山(海拔4170米)和基拉韦厄火山(海拔1,250米),就像两个巨塔俯瞰着太平洋。火山猛烈的喷发不断地改变周围的景观,熔岩流揭示了奇妙的地质构造过程。人类在这里发现了许多稀有鸟类、当地特有物种和大量的巨型蕨类植物。

source: UNESCO/ERI

Национальный парк Гавайские вулканы

Мауна-Лоа (высота 4170 м) и Килауэа (1250 м), два самых активных вулкана на Земле, высятся над тихоокеанскими просторами. Вулканические извержения формируют здесь постоянно изменяющийся ландшафт, застывшие потоки лавы встречаются повсюду. В парке отмечены редкие птицы и огромное число видов-эндемиков, здесь произрастают леса из гигантских древовидных папоротников.

source: UNESCO/ERI

Parque Nacional de los Volcanes de Hawai

En este parque se yerguen, dominando la costa del Pacífico, dos de los volcanes más activos del mundo, el Mauna Loa (4.170 metros de altitud) y el Kilauea. El paisaje, que cambia en función de las erupciones volcánicas y las coladas de lava, se pueden observar sorprendentes formaciones geológicas. El sitio alberga aves raras y diversas especies endémicas, así como bosques de helechos gigantes.

source: UNESCO/ERI

ハワイ火山国立公園

source: NFUAJ

Nationaal park Hawaï-vulkanen

Dit gebied bevat twee van de meest actieve vulkanen ter wereld: de Mauna Loa (4.170 meter hoog) en de Kilauea (1.250 meter hoog). Beiden torenen ze uit boven de Stille Oceaan. Vulkaanuitbarstingen creëerden een voortdurend veranderend landschap en de lavastromen hebben verrassende geologische formaties blootgelegd. In het park zijn zeldzame vogels en inheemse diersoorten te vinden, evenals bossen van reusachtige varens. Het nationale park van de Hawaï vulkanen is het grootste en een van de meest bestudeerde parken ter wereld: sinds 1912 staat er al een geologisch onderzoeksstation. Door de verschillende hoogtes varieert het klimaat er van tropische vochtigheid tot een alpine woestijnklimaat.

Source : unesco.nl

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Volcan Mauna Kea © Sacred Sites
Valeur exceptionnelle

Le Parc national des volcans d’Hawaï comprend Mauna Loa et Kilauea, deux des volcans les plus actifs et accessibles au monde où l’on peut facilement observer des processus géologiques en cours. Ce bien est un excellent exemple d’île édifiée par des processus volcaniques. À travers le processus de formations de volcans boucliers, le paysage du Parc est représentatif d’un changement dynamique relativement constant.

Critère (viii) : Ce bien est un exemple unique de formation d’une île par des processus volcaniques en cours. Il représente la plus récente activité du processus permanent expliquant l’origine et les modifications géologiques de l’archipel hawaïen. Le parc renferme d’importants éléments de deux des volcans les plus actifs et les mieux compris, le Kilauea et le Mauna Loa – ce dernier, mesuré depuis le plancher océanique, représentant la plus importante masse volcanique de la planète.

Description longue
[Uniquement en anglais]

Lies in the south-east part of the island of Hawaii (Big Island), the easternmost island of the State of Hawaii, and includes the summit and south-east slope of Mauna Loa and the summit and south-western, southern, and south-eastern slopes of the Kilauea Volcano. The park extends from the southern coast, with its volcanic sea cliff headlands to the summit calderas of Kilauea, the most active volcano in the world (with more than 50 recorded eruptions in the last 33 years up to 1985) and Mauna Loa volcanoes. The latter is a massive, flat-domed shield volcano built by lava flow layers and is considered to be the best example of its type in the world, extending from 5,581 m below sea level to 4,169 m above.

The Hawaii Volcanoes National Park is greatest and the calderas of Kilauea are one of most studied in the world: in fact there is a geologic station dating from 1912.

The climatic gradient varies with altitude from tropical humid to alpine desert.

The park contains a high diversity of plant communities with striking life-form and physiognomic differences; 23 distinct vegetation types have been described for the park, ranging from the very diverse tropical rainforest of 'Ola'a to the scrub and grassland of Ka'u and the alpine tundra of Mauna Loa, grouped into five major ecosystems: subalpine, montane seasonal, montane rainforest, submontane seasonal and coastal lowlands. The 'Ola'a Forest tract, over 4,000 ha in size, is probably the largest remaining tract of virgin ohia and fern forest in the Hawaiian Islands. The native flora numbering 41 species, with a further 40 listed as rare and warranting special attention.

The park is rich, in archaeological remains particularly along 'the coast with native villages, temples, graves, paved trails, canoe landings, petroglyphs, shelter caves and agricultural areas. Following the arrival of Captain James Cook in 1778-79, Christian influences started in or around 1823, with churches and schools built and the introduction of cattle, goat and pulu (tree-fern product) harvesting and the encouragement of visitors. Extensive ruins of stone structures dating back to the time of Pa'ao (a high priest) in 1275 are present.

Like all natural areas in Hawaii, the park has been subject to considerable biological alteration since man's arrival. Direct removal or alteration of native forest for growing sugar and pineapple plantations, ranching and logging, has altered the native biota of the forest habitats, particularly at low and middle elevations. Except for a single species of bat Hawaiian hoary bat, native mammalian forms are absent. Little is known to date about invertebrate forms. Avian forms present interesting and significant examples of adaptive radiation and of extinction. Most endemic avian species are rare or endangered. Ranching activities and the introduction of species such as the pig, goat and mongoose have had serious biological consequences, including destruction of native ecosystems and widespread extinction of endemic species. Pockets of standing water, created by the wallowing of the feral pigs, provide breeding places for mosquitoes, resulting in serious avian malaria.

The control programs undertaken on the basis of solid scientific research have been a model for removal of alien animals and plants (including illegal narcotics) on oceanic islands.

Source : UNESCO/CLT/WHC
Description historique
[Uniquement en anglais]

Hawaii National Park, created on 1 August 1916 by Act of the US Congress (39 Stat. 432), consisted of two units each on different islands, one on Hawaii Island and the other on Maui Island. The area of the park was more than doubled as a result of Congressional authorisation in 1922 (45 Stat. 503), in 1928 (45 Stat. 424) and in 1938 (52 Stat. 781). The 'Ola'a Forest Tract was donated in 1951 and 1953 (Executive Order #1640). The park was split into Hawaii Volcanoes National Park (on Hawaii Island) and Haleakala National Park (on Maui Island) in 1961 (75 Stat. 577). Hawaii Volcanoes National Park is protected under 16 U.S.C. 1 (National Park Service Organic Act) and under the terms establishing the park as set out in 16 U.S.C. 395b, and under several sections of 16 U.S.C. 391-396a. Hawaii Volcanoes and Haleakala national parks were accepted as MAB Biosphere Reserves in 1980, and combined to form one cluster, Hawaiian Islands Biosphere Reserve, in April 1983. Hawaii Volcanoes National Park is under consideration for inscription on the World Heritage list.

Source : évaluation des Organisations consultatives
Notes
  • Modification dans la numérotation des critères pour les biens inscrits pour leur valeur géologique et biologique sous le critère naturel N (ii). Le critère naturel N (i) a été ajouté. Voir Décision 30.COM 8D.1