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Ville sainte d'Anuradhapura

Sacred City of Anuradhapura

This sacred city was established around a cutting from the 'tree of enlightenment', the Buddha's fig tree, brought there in the 3rd century B.C. by Sanghamitta, the founder of an order of Buddhist nuns. Anuradhapura, a Ceylonese political and religious capital that flourished for 1,300 years, was abandoned after an invasion in 993. Hidden away in dense jungle for many years, the splendid site, with its palaces, monasteries and monuments, is now accessible once again.

Ville sainte d'Anuradhapura

Cette ville sacrée s'est établie autour d'une bouture de l'« arbre de l'éveil », le figuier de Bouddha, dont la bouture fut apportée au IIIe siècle av. J.-C. par Sanghamitta, fondatrice d'un ordre bouddhiste féminin. Anuradhapura, capitale politique et religieuse de Ceylan pendant 1 300 ans, a été abandonnée en 993 à la suite d'invasions. Longtemps ensevelie sous une jungle épaisse, la ville, avec ses palais, ses monastères et autres monuments, est de nouveau accessible dans son site admirable.

مدينة أنوردابورا

شيدت هذه المدينة حول غرسة لشجرة اليقظة أو شجرة التين المقدسة التي كان يجلس بوذا في ظلها والتي جاءت سانغاميتا (وهي مؤسسة رهبانية بوذية للإناث) بغرستها في القرن الثالث قبل الميلاد. اما مدينة أنورادابورا التي كانت العاصمة السياسية والدينية لسيلان (حاليا سريلانكا) طيلة 1300 عام فقد هجرت عام 993 إثر تعرضها للغزوات. وقد عادت الطريق اليها سالكة للتمتع بموقعها الرائع وقصورها واديرتها وسائر نصبها بعد أن قبعت دفينة لزمن طويل تحت الأدغال الكثيفة.

source: UNESCO/ERI

阿努拉德普勒圣城

公元前3世纪,斯里兰卡佛教尼姑会的创始人桑哈米塔把一枝从佛教“启蒙树”无花果树上剪下的枝条带回到锡兰(今斯里兰卡),以这枝无花果枝条为中心人们建起了阿努拉德普勒圣城。阿努拉德普勒圣城曾是锡兰的政治和宗教中心,有一千三百多年的辉煌历史。公元993年时,因遭遇外敌入侵,这座圣城被人们遗弃。在茂密的丛林中隐藏了许多年后,这座古圣城的遗址又重新被人们发现,她那恢宏的宫殿,轩昂的庙宇向世人展示着阿努拉达普拉圣城曾经的辉煌。

source: UNESCO/ERI

Священный город Анурадхапура

Этот священный город был основан вокруг саженца-отростка от «дерева просветления» – фигового дерева Будды, завезенного сюда в III в. до н.э. Сангхамиттой, основательницей ордена буддийских монахинь. Город Анурадхапура являлся политической и религиозной столицей на острове Цейлон и процветал в течение 1300 лет, а затем был заброшен после вторжения в 993 г. армии государства Чола с континента. Будучи многие годы скрытым в густых джунглях, это замечательное место с дворцами, монастырями и памятниками сейчас снова доступно.

source: UNESCO/ERI

Ciudad santa de Anuradhapura

Esta ciudad sagrada se estableció en torno a un retoño del “árbol de la iluminación” –la higuera de Buda– traído desde la India en el siglo III a.C. por Sanghamitta, fundadora de una orden de monjas budistas. Anuradhapura fue la capital política y religiosa de Sri Lanka por espacio de trece siglos, hasta su destrucción y abandono a raíz de una invasión sobrevenida el año 993. Oculto bajo la espesura de la jungla durante mucho tiempo, el espléndido sitio de la ciudad, con sus palacios, monasterios y monumentos, es de nuevo accesible.

source: UNESCO/ERI

聖地アヌラーダプラ

source: NFUAJ

Heilige stad van Anuradhapura

Anuradhapura getuigt op een unieke en specifieke manier van de Singalese beschaving. De stad is heilig doordat een deel ervan uit de ‘boom van verlichting’ werd gehakt. Deze vijgenboom waarbij Boeddha verlichting vond, werd in de 3e eeuw voor Christus door Sanghamitta – de stichter van een orde van Boeddhistische nonnen – naar Anuradhapura gebracht. De stad floreerde 1.300 jaar lang als de politieke en religieuze hoofdstad van Ceylon, maar werd na een invasie in het jaar 993 verlaten. De prachtige locatie met zijn paleizen, kloosters en monumenten lag gedurende vele jaren verborgen in de dichte jungle, maar is tegenwoordig weer toegankelijk.

Source : unesco.nl

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Anuradhapura attests in a unique and specific way to the Sinhalese civilization. On numerous occasions the city was submitted to the assaults of invaders from southern India - Tamils, Pandyas, Cholas, etc. It stands as a permanent manifesto of the culture of Sri Lanka, impervious to outside influences. The sacred city exerted a considerable influence on the development of architecture during several centuries. It includes remarkable monuments, particularly the Dagabas of colossal size, placed on circular foundations and surrounded by a ring of monolithic columns, characteristic of the Sinhalese stupas.

The city is one of the principal shrines of Buddhism. The cutting from the fig tree of Buddha, brought there in the 3rd century BC, has flourished and, today, the Bodhi tree spreads out over the centre of the site from a sanctuary near the Brazen Palace. The relics of Siddharta have, moreover, shaped the religious topography of Anuradhapura, where the Dagaba Thuparama was built by King Tissa in the 3rd century BC to house the clavicle of Buddha, an important religious relic presented by Ashoka.

Founded during the 4th century BC, Anuradhapura quickly became both the capital of Ceylon and the sacred city of Buddhism on the island. The Chronicles of Mahanam, a narrative written 1,000 years later, affirms that it was founded in 380 BC by Prince Pandukabhaya.

Towards 250 BC, King Ashoka sent his son Mahinda to convert Tissa, the grandson of Pandukabhaya, and the latter became the first Buddhist sovereign (devanampiya) of Ceylon. A second mission, led by Sanghamitta, Buddhist nun and daughter of Ashoka, brought Tissa a cutting from the Ashvattha, the sacred fig tree of Bodhgaya, under which Siddharta attained spiritual enlightenment and supreme wisdom.

With the exception of the period of the invasion of the Tamil princes, at the beginning of the 2nd century BC, Anuradhapura remained the political and religious capital of Ceylon during 10 centuries. Its apogee was reached under the reign of Dutthagamani who, in 161 BC, expelled the Tamil invaders, re-established Buddhism in the place of Brahminism and endowed the site with extraordinary monuments: Dagaba Minisaweti, Dagaba Rubanwelisaya, the Brazen Palace, etc.

Anuradhapura was sacked and taken by the Pandyan kings during the 9th century and then returned against payment of a ransom.

The majority of the monuments were restored but the city never recovered after its destruction in AD 993 by King Chola Rajaraja I. Having lost its position as capital, it was deserted in favour of Polonnaruwa.

Source : UNESCO/CLT/WHC