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Site historique d'Etat des Cahokia Mounds

Cahokia Mounds State Historic Site

Cahokia Mounds, some 13 km north-east of St Louis, Missouri, is the largest pre-Columbian settlement north of Mexico. It was occupied primarily during the Mississippian period (800–1400), when it covered nearly 1,600 ha and included some 120 mounds. It is a striking example of a complex chiefdom society, with many satellite mound centres and numerous outlying hamlets and villages. This agricultural society may have had a population of 10–20,000 at its peak between 1050 and 1150. Primary features at the site include Monks Mound, the largest prehistoric earthwork in the Americas, covering over 5 ha and standing 30 m high.

Site historique d'Etat des Cahokia Mounds

Le site des Cahokia Mounds, à environ 13 km au nord de Saint Louis, Missouri, représente le plus grand foyer de peuplement précolombien au nord du Mexique. Il a été occupé essentiellement pendant le mississippien (800-1400), période où il couvrait 1 600 ha et comptait quelque 120 tumulus. C'est un remarquable exemple de société complexe fondée sur la chefferie et comprenant beaucoup de tumulus satellites et de nombreux hameaux et villages excentrés. Cette société agricole pourrait avoir atteint une population de 10 000 à 20 000 habitants à son apogée entre 1050 et 1150. Parmi les lieux essentiels du site, il faut noter Monks Mound, le plus grand ouvrage préhistorique en terre des Amériques, qui couvre plus de 5 ha et fait 3 m de haut.

الموقع التاريخي لولاية الكاهوكيا ماوندز

يمثل موقع كاهوكا ماونذر الواقع عند 31 كيلومتراً شمال سانت لويس، ميسوري أكبر مواطن السكن في الحقبة ما قبل الكولومبيّة شمال المكسيك. أصبح موطن سكن في خلال حقبة الميسيسيبي (800-1400) عندما كان يغطي 1600 هكتار ويضمّ حوالى120 حجراً. هو مثال استثنائي عن مجتمع معقّد تأسس على مبدأ المقاطعات ويضمّ العديد من الهضاب المجاورة والقرى البعيدة عن المركز. لعلّ عدد سكّان هذا المجتمع الزراعي بلغ 10000 إلى20000 بين عامي1050 و1150. ومن بين أبرز محطات الموقع حجارة مونكس ماوند وهي تحفة العصر الحجري الأعظم في الأراضي الأمريكيّة والتي تغطي أكثر من 5 هكتارات وتعلو على ارتفاع ثلاثة أمتار.

source: UNESCO/ERI

卡俄基亚土丘历史遗址

卡俄基亚土丘历史遗址位于密苏里州圣路易斯城东北部约13公里处,这是哥伦布发现美洲前墨西哥以北地区最大的聚居地。该遗址主要在密西西比纪(公元800年至1400年)时期开始有人类居住,占地1600公顷,包括120个土丘。该遗址是古代部落社会的典型样例,以类似中心城和卫星城的模式进行规划,在中心城市周围有许多小村庄。这个农业社会在其鼎盛时期(约公元1050年至1150年间)约有人口1万至2万。在这个遗址上我们还可以找到一些远古建筑,例如当地的寺庙丘,这是美洲大陆上最大的史前土木工程,占地超过5公顷,高约30米。

source: UNESCO/ERI

Исторический памятник Курганы Кахокии

Курганы Кахокии, находящиеся приблизительно в 13 км к северу-востоку от Сент-Луиса (штат Миссури), – это крупнейшее доколумбово поселение из всех, располагающихся севернее Мексики. Оно было обитаемо в основном в течение «периода Миссисипи» (800-1400 гг.), когда занимало порядка 1,6 тыс. га и включало около 120 курганов. Это яркий пример древнего племенного поселения, которое включает многочисленные связанные с ним курганы и окрестные небольшие поселки. Данное аграрное сообщество на пике своего развития в 1050-1150 гг. могло иметь население порядка 10-20 тыс. человек. Среди главных достопримечательностей – «Монашеский курган», крупнейшее доисторическое земляное сооружение в Америке, имеющее площадь 5 га и высоту 30 м.

source: UNESCO/ERI

Sitio histórico estatal de Cahokia Mounds

Ubicado a unos 13 kilómetros al norte de San Luis (Misuri), el sitio de Cahokia Mounds es el mayor asentamiento humano precolombino encontrado al norte de México. Este lugar fue habitado en el Período Misisipiano (800-1400 d.C.), época en la que se extendía por unas 1.600 hectáreas y contaba con unos 120 túmulos. Los vestigios del sitio muestran la existencia de una sociedad compleja gobernada por caciques, así como la presencia de numerosos túmulos satélites y aldeas y pueblos periféricos. Esta sociedad agrícola llegó a tener probablemente unos 10.000 a 20.000 habitantes en el momento de su apogeo (1050-1150 d.C.). Otro elemento importante de este sitio es Monks Mound, el mayor túmulo prehistórico de las Américas, que tiene cinco hectáreas de superficie y treinta metros de altura.

source: UNESCO/ERI

カホキア墳丘群州立史跡

source: NFUAJ

Historische plaats Cahokia Mounds

Cahokia Mounds - zo'n 13 kilometer ten noordoosten van Saint Louis, Missouri - is de grootste precolumbiaanse nederzetting ten noorden van Mexico. De plek werd voornamelijk bewoond tijdens de Mississippische periode (800-1400) toen het gebied bijna 1.600 hectare omvatte. Er waren toen ongeveer 120 artificiële aarden heuvels in het gebied. Cahokia Mounds is een voorbeeld van een complexe leiderschapscultuur met veel afgelegen gehuchten en dorpen. Op z'n piek (1050-1150) kende deze agrarische samenleving een bevolking van tussen de 10.000 tot 20.000 inwoners. Een belangrijke plek is de Monks Mound. Deze heuvel van meer dan 5 hectare groot en 30 meter hoog geldt als grootste prehistorische grondwerk op het Amerikaanse continent.

Source : unesco.nl

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Site historique d'Etat des Cahokia Mounds © Emily Dickinson
Valeur exceptionnelle

Le site des Cahokia Mounds représente le plus grand foyer de peuplement précolombien au nord du Mexique. Il a été occupé essentiellement pendant le mississippien (800-1350), période où il couvrait 1 600 hectares et comptait quelque 120 tumulus. C’est un remarquable exemple de centre culturel, religieux et économique de la tradition culturelle mississippienne, qui s’étendait dans toute la vallée du Mississipi et dans le sud-est des Etats-Unis. Cette société agricole pourrait avoir atteint une population de 10 000 à 20 000 habitants à son apogée, entre 1050 et 1150. Cahokia est un exemple précoce et exceptionnel de structuration pré-urbaine.

Critère (iii) : Datant de la période mississippienne (800-1350), Cahokia Mounds est le plus grand site archéologique au nord du Mexique, et aussi le plus ancien. C’est un exemple éminent de centre culturel, religieux et économique de la tradition culturelle mississippienne préhistorique.

Critère (iv) : Le site de Caholia témoigne graphiquement de l’existence d’une société pré-urbaine dans laquelle une puissante hiérarchie politique et économique était responsable de l’organisation du travail, de l’agriculture communale, et du commerce, comme l’attestent la taille et le plan des bâtiments publics et privés.

Description longue
[Uniquement en anglais]

Cahokia Mounds State historic site is the most comprehensive affirmation of the pre-Columbian civilizations in the Mississippi region. It is an early and eminent example of pre-urban structuring, which provides an opportunity to study a type of social organization, on which written sources are silent.

The archaeological site of Cahokia, so named for a subtribe of the Illini who occupied the area when the French arrived, serves as a point of reference for the study of pre-Columbian civilizations in the area of the Mississippi from approximately 900 to 1600. Within the vast zone of plains and plateaux the occupation of the land and the population development underwent an original evolution during the last phase of prehistory, characterized at once by agricultural advances and by a social system which favoured urban concentration. Anthropologists have estimated a sedentary population of an average of 10,000 inhabitants whose social and professional organization, lifestyle and funerary rites have been brought to light by a series of excavations.

Fascinating information about the people who once built the great prehistoric city of Cahokia was revealed accidentally during excavations in the early 1960s. Dr Warren Wittry was studying excavation maps when he observed that numerous large oval-shaped pits seemed to be arranged in arcs of circles. He theorized that posts set in these pits lined up with the rising Sun at certain times of the year, serving as a calendar, which he called Woodhenge. Fragments of wood remaining in some of the post pits revealed that red cedar, a sacred wood, had been used for the posts. The most spectacular sunrise occurs at the equinoxes, when the Sun rises due east. The post marking these sunrises aligns with the front of Monks Mound, where the leader resided, and it looks as though Monks Mound gives birth to the Sun.

The limits of the site are defined by a number of earthwork levees comparable to the enceinte of the protohistoric European oppida. Within this circumvallation, space is rationally distributed between living quarters, zones of specialized activities and public ceremonial areas. Small gardens were attached to each living unit but the cultivated lands were essentially found outside the circumvallation, where a series of small satellite villages were located.

The architecture of Cahokia is based on the exclusive use of two materials: earth and wood. The omnipresent forms are those of mounds, when either served as mottes or as funerary tumuli. The dwellings consisted of posts or of wooden palisades. The wooden palisades could serve equally as well as defensive enclosures. In the 12th century, the entire central sector of the site, including the largest (Monks) mound, which is a testament to the sophisticated engineering skills of these people. It had been encircled by such a palisade, which took the form of a bastioned enceinte. Excavation results suggest the existence of a markedly hierarchical social structure, incorporating an interior city where the centre of power was located.

The third circle (AD 1000) was reconstructed in 1985 at the original location. Red ochre pigment found in some of the postholes suggests the posts may have been painted.

Associated with Round Top, Mound 60 is a large, rectangular platform mound known as the Fox Mound. These two mounds seem to be united by a platform as a contour line surrounds them both on the map. The contour may, however, only represent a blending of the slope wash, or talus slopes, of the two mounds coming together. They probably were a unit because the relationship to each other is matched by other paired mounds at the site. They seem strongly reminiscent of the association of platform charnel-house mounds and conical burial mounds in this ethno-historic period of the south-eastern United States.

Source : UNESCO/CLT/WHC