jump to the content

Sistema Vial Andino/ Qhapaq Ñan

Date of Submission: 16/03/2011
Category: Cultural
Submitted by:
Permanent Delegation of Ecuador to UNESCO
State, Province or Region:
Carchi, Imbabura, Pichincha, Cotopaxi, Chimborazo, Cañar, Azuay, Guayas, Loja.
Ref.: 5597
Export
Word File
Disclaimer

The Secretariat of the United Nations Educational Scientific and Cultural Organization (UNESCO) and the World Heritage Centre do not represent or endorse the accuracy or reliability of any advice, opinion, statement or other information or documentation provided by the States Parties to the World Heritage Convention to the Secretariat of UNESCO or to the World Heritage Centre.

The publication of any such advice, opinion, statement or other information documentation on the World Heritage Centre’s website and/or on working documents also does not imply the expression of any opinion whatsoever on the part of the Secretariat of UNESCO or of the World Heritage Centre concerning the legal status of any country, territory, city or area or of its boundaries.

Property names are listed in the language in which they have been submitted by the State Party

Description

 

Province

Section

Sub section

Initial Points

 

 

 

 

X

Y

Carchi

 

Rumichaca

-77,66499

0,81522

Carchi

 

Pulcas - Troya A

-77,68387

0,77752

Carchi

 

Pulcas - Troya B

-77,69063

0,77129

Carchi

 

Mariscal Sucre - El Tambo

-77,73541

0,59357

Carchi

 

La Paz - Quebrada Tupala

-77,85709

0,50717

Carchi

 

Loma Virgen - Chiquito

-78,07034

0,54582

Carchi

 

Juan Montalvo - Cabuyal

-78,08943

0,58657

Imbabura

 

Piman - Caranqui

-78,084285

0,382148

Pichincha

 

Campana Pucará - Quitoloma

-78,206541

-0,05457

Cotopaxi

 

Nagsiche - Panzaleo

-78,60875

-1,06160

Chimborazo-Cañar

Achupallas - Ingapirca

 

-78,77501

-2,29402

Chimborazo-Cañar

 

Pallcañan Grande-Pallcañan Chico

-78,79151

-2,31740

 Cañar

 

El Tambo - Honorato Vásquez

-78,93023

-2,52940

Cañar

 

Cerro de Cojitambo(Loma Curiquinga)-Rumiurco

-78,89067

-2,75894

Cañar

 

Pacchamama-Llacao

-78,93935

-2,82914

Azuay

 

Llaviuco-Llaviuco

-79,151637

-2,84472

Azuay

 

Mamamag-Mamamag

-79,20139

 

-2,82656

 

Azuay

 

Paredones - Paredones

 

-79,43501

 

-2,75592

 

Azuay

 

Hierba Buena-Hierba Buena

 

-79,42563

 

-2,72183

 

 Azuay

 

 

San Antonio-San Antonio

-79,405858

 

-2,90788

 

Azuay

 

Santa Martha-Santa Martha

 

-79,438760

 

-2,92244

 

Guayas

 

Botija Paqui-Botija Paqui

-79,55228

 

-2,68882

 

Loja

 

 Cerro Caragshillo-Cañaro - Tuncarta

-79,20428

-3,58867

Loja

 

Oñacapa-Loma de Paila (Zarza)

-79,20704

-3,64674

Loja

 

Ciudadela - Vinoyaco Grande

-79,24245

-3,71865

Loja

Quebrada Huatuchi  - Plaza del Inca- San Antonio de las Aradas

 

-79,29740

-4,31013

Loja

 

Jimbura - Puente Roto

-79,46152

-4,63262

Loja

 

San José-Llamacachi-Las Limas

-79,43938

-4,46976

 General Description:

Qhapaq Ñan, the Andean road system, is a cultural itinerary that constitutes a unique physical accomplishment of the utmost importance to the history of humanity and of the continent of South America.

The construction of Qhapaq Ñan gave rise to an extraordinary road network, planned  and laid as a permanent tract through one of the world's most broken and extreme geographical terrains, where the world's greatest biological diversity, coupled with great cultural diversity, is to be found. The roads were used by armies, whole population groups that often amounted to more than 40,000 persons and a large number of llama caravans, transporting goods and raw materials.

In addition to the distance covered by that extensive road system, the sheer scale and the quality of the road, built to link the snow-capped mountain range of the Andes, at an altitude of more than 6,000 metres high, to the coast, running through hot rainforests, fertile valleys and absolute deserts, are most outstanding.

All territories were linked to the trunk road along the mountain range of the Andes.  Towns, villages and rural areas were thus integrated into a single road grid. There are outstanding examples of the road administration, architectural and engineering technology used in finding solutions to myriad problems posed by the difficult terrain and in adapting to its variable landscape by means of bridges, stairs, ditches and cobblestone paving. This all conduced, under a specific maintenance programme, to the continuity, safety and sanitation of Qhapaq Ñan. Similarly, travel was facilitated by signposts, stores and staging and supply posts (wayside inns) all along the road.

When, in the sixteenth century, the Spanish reached Tawantinsuyu, a very large political entity in the Andes, they found a territory linked together by a communication system that was nearly 6,000 km long and had some 26,000 km of feeder roads. The road network was the outcome of a political project implemented by the Cusco Incas and linking towns and centres of production and worship together under an economic, social and cultural programme in the service of the State.

The Europeans compared Qhapaq Ñan with the Roman road network, pointing out that, in their opinion, the Andean road technology was even more advanced than that used in  Europe at the time.

The central thrust of the Incas' policy, initiated in the sixth century and recorded in millennia of pre-Hispanic Andean history, was expressed to the fullest in terms of territorial spread and maximum linkages among cultures in the fifteenth century. The exceptional feature of this great engineering feat is that its legacy is still physically, functionally and symbolically relevant to Andean peoples today.

The States of Argentina, Bolivia, Colombia, Chile, Ecuador and Peru have now made this living heritage the focus of a transnational integration project, thus undertaking to safeguard this outstanding feature of the common cultural heritage of Andean America, a unique legacy to the world.

Justification of Outstanding Universal Value

Contribution from Ecuador to Outstanding Universal Value of the Serial international nomination:

The outstanding aspects of this road system are its routes and the building techniques used to cross such a complex orogen as the Ecuadorian Sierra, from the Nudo del Azuay to the north. The command of land planning, the long-term presence and role which the Mindalaes maintained in short- and long-distance exchanges led to the reuse and building of infrastructure which sustained the Inca advance.

In Ecuador, the roads enabled the relationship between the peoples of Chichaysuyu to be maintained. The Road's itinerary lent itself to a process of exchange of social, economic and political values. The territory was occupied before the advancement of the Inca by the Paltas and Malacatos, Calvas, Ambocas and Chaparra, some of the most important peoples with their own economy and reciprocal exchange relationships to strengthen their ancient ties in various regions and ecological zones. Ethno-historical data suggests that these groups generated surplus produce which made them self-sufficient and enabled the development of redistribution systems playing a major role for the Mindalaes, who represented trade and influenced ethnic and multi-ethnic trade and the exchange of products from different altitude tiers. The main products traded were garlic, cotton, salt, coca and particularly Spondylm and Strombus shells.

Criterion (i)

The outstanding aspects of this road network are the routes and building techniques used to cover one of the planet's most complex mountain systems. The construction of this network represents the synthesis of cultural development in South America. The Qhapaq Ñan Andean Road and some of the pre-Hispanic sites inscribed have been located and admired since the sixteenth century by many chroniclers, explorers and travellers who traversed this major engineering work of the pre-Inca and Inca eras.

Criterion (ii)

The features and archaeological evidence of the Andean Road network reflect a dynamic exchange of values, the use of architectural elements and political structures existing in the pre-Inca and Inca eras, such as the maintenance of strategic lines related to production and land occupancy in different altitude tiers, through the use of an agricultural system known as "vertical control".

Criterion (iii)

The Inca stood amidst this panorama, their most notable achievement perhaps being that of having discovered the specificities of each of these peoples and applying a very strict system of organization enabling the exchange of social, political and economic values among them in the pre-Inca and Inca eras.

Criterion (iv)

The road network has characteristic features in its different architectural elements, in terms of its walls, roads, steps, roadside ditches, sewage pipes, drains, etc., with construction methods that vary adapting to progression and region. To this must be added the construction of a State infrastructure with standardized architectural elements for the control, protection and management of the area and use of the products of the mountains, coast and Amazonia. The archaeological sites selected portray this magnificent infrastructure: administrative and political centres, resting places (inns), cairns, chasquiwasis (resting places for messengers), military fortresses used in wars caused by the expansion of the Inca Empire (Tawantinsuyu), silos, ushnus (ceremonial platforms), earth mounds and petroglyphs, with a diverse landscape associated with natural elements: mountains, lakes, jungles and flora and fauna showing how populations coexisted with their natural environment.

Criterion (v)

The road system reflects the interrelation of communities with their geographical and natural environment such as mountains, lakes and water. The altitude of the network ranges 28 metres to 6.700 metres spanning plateaux, mountain ranges, (paramo), valleys and the sea. The road and architectural infrastructure works maintain a relationship with the surrounding landscape such as water resources, mountains, lakes, etc. The topography of the network is very uneven. Similarly, interregional use via mountain passes determines its relationship and the exchange of products and the use of resources of the three zones (coast, mountains, Amazonia) as well as regional exchange with the other suyos (areas).

Criterion (vi)

It connects living communities which still use the Road and keep it in their memory. Through language and oral tradition, it lives on as part of their world view and it is indirectly associated with ancestral traditions and techniques passed on from generation to generation. The respect and appropriate use of the different elements of nature: hills, water, animals and plants, create a world which nourishes part of their knowledge and wisdom in their desire to establish harmony, a balance between human beings and the natural environment.

Statements of authenticity and/or integrity

Authenticity: Due to its unique historical evolution, this cultural itinerary has retained a level of authenticity in its integral natural and societal features that are outstanding in the Andean region. Resulting from a continental scale of cultural interaction between man and environment in some of the most extreme geographies of the planet, it has preserved its spatial and physical structure to an exceptionally high degree. Today cultural traditions allow the communication system to continue being functional in terms of exchange of production, symbolic practises and the persistence of Andean cosmovision.

Integrity: The property appropriately retains all the archaeological elements linked to the evidence of formation and development of the Inca Empire and all the anthropological capital that continues today serving as an articulation mechanism that still retains the significance and function of the communication system.

Comparison with other similar properties

The Scientific Committee met in Paris in April 2006 to develop the basis of the comparative study for the nomination. The World Heritage Centre invited academic experts on the Ancient routes of communication in the Ancient Empires: international experts from Maya studies; Roman Empire main roads; the trade routes of the Tigris and Euphrates basin; the Silk route; Indus river communication trails and Greek maritime itineraries all attended the meeting reflected, with the Andean specialists, upon the categories of analysis to be fulfilled for a comprehensive comparative study. This meeting took advantage of the opening ceremony of the exhibition: From Chavin to the Incas, held at the Petit Palais in Paris.  The World Heritage Centre established a productive collaboration with the directorship of the Museum as well as with the Peruvian Authorities for the presentation of the Qhapaq Ñan project at the exhibition; a promising juncture for improving the multidisciplinary approach in Andean studies. One chapter of the Catalogue of the exhibition has been devoted to the Qhapaq Ñan project.

Protection: A Legal Affairs Committee was set up to coordinate efforts to establish an international legal framework to preserve the OUV of the cultural itinerary. A political Declaration is currently under preparation to ensure the collective commitment between the six countries. The nomination process has developed a conservation and management plan in full coherence with the international agreement.

A Scientific Committee composed of renowned scholars in anthropology, archaeology and ethno-history, as well as national experts selected by their respective countries and the World Heritage Centre was established in April 2005. The purpose of this Committee was to define the outstanding universal value of the Andean Road System. The Scientific Committee held its first meeting in Quito, Ecuador in April 2005. The Scientific Committee believes that the Qhapaq Ñan is one of the ancient world's greatest human achievements and, to this day, it serves as a link between ancestral and contemporary heritage in Andean America.

A second meeting of the Scientific Committee (UNESCO Headquarters, Paris, 2006) sought to develop the basis of the comparative study for the nomination. Academic experts on the ancient routes of communication in the Ancient Empires: international experts on Maya studies, Roman Empire main roads, the trade routes of the Tigris and Euphrates Basin, the Silk Route, Indus River communication trails and Greek maritime itineraries, all attended the meeting and reflected, with the Andean specialists, upon the categories of analysis to be fulfilled or a comprehensive comparative study.