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State of Conservation

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166
Reports
166
Properties
95
States Parties
Site State Party Year Threats* Danger List
aapravasi ghatAapravasi Ghat mauritius Mauritius 2019 Commercial development, Ground transport infrastructure, Management systems/ management plan, No
abu menaAbu Mena egypt Egypt 2019 Housing, Management activities, Management systems/ management plan, Water (rain/water table), Yes
air and tenere natural reservesAir and Ténéré Natural Reserves niger Niger 2019 Civil unrest, Erosion and siltation/ deposition, Forestry /wood production, Human resources, Identity, social cohesion, changes in local population and community, Illegal activities, Invasive/alien terrestrial species, Livestock farming / grazing of domesticated animals, Management activities, Management systems/ management plan, Mining, Yes
ancient and primeval beech forests of the carpathians and other regions of europeAncient and Primeval Beech Forests of the Carpathians and Other Regions of Europe albania,austria,belgium,bulgaria,croatia,germany,italy,romania,slovakia,slovenia,spain,ukraine Albania
Austria
Belgium
Bulgaria
Croatia
Germany
Italy
Romania
Slovakia
Slovenia
Spain
Ukraine
2019 Commercial hunting, Forestry /wood production, Legal framework, Management systems/ management plan, No
ancient city of aleppoAncient City of Aleppo syrian arab republic Syrian Arab Republic 2019 Land conversion, Management activities, Management systems/ management plan, War, Yes
ancient city of bosraAncient City of Bosra syrian arab republic Syrian Arab Republic 2019 Housing, Illegal activities, War, Yes
ancient city of damascusAncient City of Damascus syrian arab republic Syrian Arab Republic 2019 Housing, Management activities, Management systems/ management plan, War,
Other Threats: fire
Yes
ancient city of nessebarAncient City of Nessebar bulgaria Bulgaria 2019 Housing, Impacts of tourism / visitor / recreation, Management systems/ management plan, Marine transport infrastructure, No
ancient thebes with its necropolisAncient Thebes with its Necropolis egypt Egypt 2019 Changes in traditional ways of life and knowledge system, Deliberate destruction of heritage, Flooding, Housing, Human resources, Impacts of tourism / visitor / recreation, Management activities, Management systems/ management plan, Water (rain/water table),
Other Threats: Natural decay and structural problems
No
ancient villages of northern syriaAncient Villages of Northern Syria syrian arab republic Syrian Arab Republic 2019 Financial resources, Housing, Human resources, Identity, social cohesion, changes in local population and community, Illegal activities, Legal framework, Management systems/ management plan, Quarrying, War, Yes
archaeological areas of pompei, herculaneum and torre annunziataArchaeological Areas of Pompei, Herculaneum and Torre Annunziata italy Italy 2019 Financial resources, Housing, Human resources, Impacts of tourism / visitor / recreation, Management systems/ management plan, Solid waste, No
archaeological site of carthageArchaeological Site of Carthage tunisia Tunisia 2019 Housing, Legal framework, Management systems/ management plan, No
archaeological site of cyreneArchaeological Site of Cyrene libya Libya 2019 Crop production, Deliberate destruction of heritage, Fire (widlfires), Governance, Housing, Interpretative and visitation facilities, Livestock farming / grazing of domesticated animals, Management activities, Management systems/ management plan, Surface water pollution, War, Yes
archaeological site of leptis magnaArchaeological Site of Leptis Magna libya Libya 2019 Desertification, Illegal activities, War,
Other Threats: Deterioration of the stone masonry; Discharge of domestic wastewater at the west of the property
Yes
archaeological site of panamá viejo and historic district of panamáArchaeological Site of Panamá Viejo and Historic District of Panamá panama Panama 2019 Financial resources, Housing, Human resources, Identity, social cohesion, changes in local population and community, Legal framework,
Other Threats: Severe deterioration of historic buildings ; Demolition of urban ensembles and buildings ; Visual impact of a maritime viaduct
No
archaeological site of sabrathaArchaeological Site of Sabratha libya Libya 2019 Invasive/alien terrestrial species, Land conversion, Relative humidity, War,
Other Threats: Impact of seawater salt on stone masonry
Yes
area de conservacion guanacasteArea de Conservación Guanacaste costa rica Costa Rica 2019 Commercial hunting, Crop production, Financial resources, Fishing/collecting aquatic resources, Ground transport infrastructure, Human resources, Illegal activities, Invasive/alien terrestrial species, Livestock farming / grazing of domesticated animals, Mining, Renewable energy facilities, Subsistence hunting, Water (extraction) ,
Other Threats: fire
No
ashur (qal'at sherqat)Ashur (Qal'at Sherqat) iraq Iraq 2019 Deliberate destruction of heritage, Flooding, Management activities, Management systems/ management plan, War, Water infrastructure,
Other Threats: Fragile mud brick structures
Yes
asmara: a modernist african cityAsmara: A Modernist African City eritrea Eritrea 2019 Financial resources, Human resources, Management systems/ management plan, No
baptism site “bethany beyond the jordan” (al-maghtas)Baptism Site “Bethany Beyond the Jordan” (Al-Maghtas) jordan Jordan 2019 Management systems/ management plan, No
baroque churches of the philippinesBaroque Churches of the Philippines philippines Philippines 2019 Ground transport infrastructure, Housing, Ritual / spiritual / religious and associative uses, No
belize barrier reef reserve systemBelize Barrier Reef Reserve System belize Belize 2019 Invasive / alien marine species, Land conversion, Oil and gas, No
białowieża forestBiałowieża Forest belarus,poland Belarus
Poland
2019 Financial resources, Forestry /wood production, Human resources, Illegal activities, Invasive/alien terrestrial species, Management systems/ management plan,
Other Threats: Alterations of the hydrological regime; Border fence impeding mammal movements
No
birthplace of jesus: church of the nativity and the pilgrimage route, bethlehemBirthplace of Jesus: Church of the Nativity and the Pilgrimage Route, Bethlehem palestine Palestine 2019 Housing, Impacts of tourism / visitor / recreation, Management activities, Management systems/ management plan, Water (rain/water table),
Other Threats: Degradation of the architectural complex of the Church of the Nativity
Yes
brasiliaBrasilia brazil Brazil 2019 Housing, Management systems/ management plan, No
budapest, including the banks of the danube, the buda castle quarter and andrássy avenueBudapest, including the Banks of the Danube, the Buda Castle Quarter and Andrássy Avenue hungary Hungary 2019 Deliberate destruction of heritage, Effects arising from use of transportation infrastructure, Housing, Identity, social cohesion, changes in local population and community, Legal framework, Management systems/ management plan,
Other Threats: Lack of conservation of residential housing in the area inscribed as World Heritage
No
byblosByblos lebanon Lebanon 2019 Erosion and siltation/ deposition, Housing, Impacts of tourism / visitor / recreation, Management systems/ management plan, No
cerrado protected areas: chapada dos veadeiros and emas national parksCerrado Protected Areas: Chapada dos Veadeiros and Emas National Parks brazil Brazil 2019 Fire (widlfires), Legal framework, Management systems/ management plan, No
chan chan archaeological zoneChan Chan Archaeological Zone peru Peru 2019 Identity, social cohesion, changes in local population and community, Illegal activities, Management systems/ management plan, Water (rain/water table),
Other Threats: Continuous deterioration of earthen architecture structures and decorated surfaces from lack of conservation and maintenance practices
Yes
chitwan national parkChitwan National Park nepal Nepal 2019 Ground transport infrastructure, Invasive/alien terrestrial species, Land conversion, Management systems/ management plan, No
churches of chiloeChurches of Chiloé chile Chile 2019 Commercial development, Effects arising from use of transportation infrastructure, Legal framework, Management activities, Management systems/ management plan, No
city of potosiCity of Potosí bolivia (plurinational state of) Bolivia (Plurinational State of) 2019 Legal framework, Management systems/ management plan, Mining, Surface water pollution,
Other Threats: Instability and risk of collapse of the Cerro Rico; Deficiencies in conservation: special attention required for the restoration and upgrading of structures with residential use and the archaeological industrial heritage
Yes
coiba national park and its special zone of marine protectionCoiba National Park and its Special Zone of Marine Protection panama Panama 2019 Fishing/collecting aquatic resources, Human resources, Impacts of tourism / visitor / recreation, Legal framework, Livestock farming / grazing of domesticated animals, Management systems/ management plan, Marine transport infrastructure, No
comoe national parkComoé National Park cote d'ivoire Côte d'Ivoire 2019 Fire (widlfires), Illegal activities, Land conversion, Livestock farming / grazing of domesticated animals, Management systems/ management plan, No
cornwall and west devon mining landscapeCornwall and West Devon Mining Landscape united kingdom of great britain and northern ireland United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland 2019 Commercial development, Management systems/ management plan, Mining, Society's valuing of heritage, No
coro and its portCoro and its Port venezuela (bolivarian republic of) Venezuela (Bolivarian Republic of) 2019 Flooding, Management systems/ management plan, Water (rain/water table),
Other Threats: Serious deterioration of materials and structure; Deterioration of the architectural and urban coherence and integrity of the property
Yes
crac des chevaliers and qal’at salah el-dinCrac des Chevaliers and Qal’at Salah El-Din syrian arab republic Syrian Arab Republic 2019 Impacts of tourism / visitor / recreation, Land conversion, Major visitor accommodation and associated infrastructure, Management activities, Management systems/ management plan, Quarrying, War, Yes
cultural and historic ensemble of the solovetsky islandsCultural and Historic Ensemble of the Solovetsky Islands russian federation Russian Federation 2019 Air transport infrastructure, Interpretative and visitation facilities, Legal framework, Management systems/ management plan,
Other Threats: Poor state of conservation of the monastic irrigation system
No
cultural landscape and archaeological remains of the bamiyan valleyCultural Landscape and Archaeological Remains of the Bamiyan Valley afghanistan Afghanistan 2019 Commercial development, Ground transport infrastructure, Housing,
Other Threats: Risk of collapse of the Giant Buddha niches; Irreversible deterioration of the mural paintings
Yes
cultural landscape of bali province: the subak system as a manifestation of the tri hita karana philosophyCultural Landscape of Bali Province: the Subak System as a Manifestation of the Tri Hita Karana Philosophy indonesia Indonesia 2019 Changes in traditional ways of life and knowledge system, Governance, Housing, Identity, social cohesion, changes in local population and community, Land conversion, Management systems/ management plan, Society's valuing of heritage, No
diyarbakır fortress and hevsel gardens cultural landscapeDiyarbakır Fortress and Hevsel Gardens Cultural Landscape turkey Turkey 2019 Civil unrest, Ground transport infrastructure, Housing, Impacts of tourism / visitor / recreation, Management systems/ management plan, Water infrastructure, No
dja faunal reserveDja Faunal Reserve cameroon Cameroon 2019 Commercial hunting, Forestry /wood production, Illegal activities, Land conversion, Livestock farming / grazing of domesticated animals, Management systems/ management plan, Water infrastructure, No
donana national parkDoñana National Park spain Spain 2019 Major linear utilities, Mining, Non-renewable energy facilities, Oil and gas, Water (extraction) , Water (rain/water table), Water infrastructure, No
durmitor national parkDurmitor National Park montenegro Montenegro 2019 Impacts of tourism / visitor / recreation, Major visitor accommodation and associated infrastructure, Management systems/ management plan, No
east rennellEast Rennell solomon islands Solomon Islands 2019 Changes to oceanic waters, Commercial hunting, Fishing/collecting aquatic resources, Forestry /wood production, Invasive/alien terrestrial species, Legal framework, Management systems/ management plan, Mining, Storms, Yes
ephesusEphesus turkey Turkey 2019 Ground transport infrastructure, Legal framework, Management systems/ management plan, No
everglades national parkEverglades National Park united states of america United States of America 2019 Housing, Invasive / alien freshwater species, Storms, Surface water pollution, Water infrastructure,
Other Threats: Mercury contamination of fish and wildlife
Yes
fort and shalamar gardens in lahoreFort and Shalamar Gardens in Lahore pakistan Pakistan 2019 Financial resources, Ground transport infrastructure, Housing, Legal framework, Management systems/ management plan, Underground transport infrastructure, No
fortifications on the caribbean side of panama: portobelo-san lorenzoFortifications on the Caribbean Side of Panama: Portobelo-San Lorenzo panama Panama 2019 Erosion and siltation/ deposition, Housing, Impacts of tourism / visitor / recreation, Land conversion, Management systems/ management plan,
Other Threats: Fragile state of the property and accelerated degradation by environmental factors, lack of maintenance and limited conservation planning
Yes
forts and castles, volta, greater accra, central and western regionsForts and Castles, Volta, Greater Accra, Central and Western Regions ghana Ghana 2019 Erosion and siltation/ deposition, Housing, Management systems/ management plan, Water (rain/water table), Wind,
Other Threats: Salt-laden atmosphere
No
fossil hominid sites of south africaFossil Hominid Sites of South Africa south africa South Africa 2019 Ground water pollution, Mining, Other climate change impacts, Surface water pollution, Water (rain/water table),
Other Threats: Acid mine drainage
No
fujisan, sacred place and source of artistic inspirationFujisan, sacred place and source of artistic inspiration japan Japan 2019 Interpretative and visitation facilities, Management systems/ management plan, No
garamba national parkGaramba National Park democratic republic of the congo Democratic Republic of the Congo 2019 Civil unrest, Illegal activities, Management systems/ management plan, War, Yes
gebel barkal and the sites of the napatan regionGebel Barkal and the Sites of the Napatan Region sudan Sudan 2019 Desertification, Flooding, Ground transport infrastructure, Housing, Land conversion, Major visitor accommodation and associated infrastructure, Management systems/ management plan, Wind, No
golden mountains of altaiGolden Mountains of Altai russian federation Russian Federation 2019 Ground transport infrastructure, Impacts of tourism / visitor / recreation, Major linear utilities, No
great burkhan khaldun mountain and its surrounding sacred landscapeGreat Burkhan Khaldun Mountain and its surrounding sacred landscape mongolia Mongolia 2019 Management systems/ management plan, Mining, No
great himalayan national park conservation areaGreat Himalayan National Park Conservation Area india India 2019 Governance, Human resources, Impacts of tourism / visitor / recreation, Indigenous hunting, gathering and collecting, Livestock farming / grazing of domesticated animals, Management systems/ management plan, Water infrastructure,
Other Threats: Rights issues with respect to local communities and indigenous peoples in the Tirthan and Sainj Wildlife Sanctuaries
No
greater blue mountains areaGreater Blue Mountains Area australia Australia 2019 Air transport infrastructure, Mining, Water infrastructure, No
group of monuments at hampiGroup of Monuments at Hampi india India 2019 Commercial development, Effects arising from use of transportation infrastructure, Ground transport infrastructure, Housing, Water (extraction) , No
hatraHatra iraq Iraq 2019 Deliberate destruction of heritage, Illegal activities, War, Yes
hebron/al-khalil old townHebron/Al-Khalil Old Town palestine Palestine 2019 Management systems/ management plan, Yes
historic cairoHistoric Cairo egypt Egypt 2019 Housing, Identity, social cohesion, changes in local population and community, Management systems/ management plan, Water (rain/water table),
Other Threats: Dilapidated infrastructure; Neglect and lack of maintenance
No
historic centre of bukharaHistoric Centre of Bukhara uzbekistan Uzbekistan 2019 Ground transport infrastructure, High impact research / monitoring activities, Housing, Management activities, Management systems/ management plan,
Other Threats: degradation of traditional houses
No
historic centre of limaHistoric Centre of Lima peru Peru 2019 Ground transport infrastructure, Housing, Management activities, Management systems/ management plan, No
historic centre of macaoHistoric Centre of Macao china China 2019 Housing, Land conversion, Management systems/ management plan, No
historic centre of shakhrisyabzHistoric Centre of Shakhrisyabz uzbekistan Uzbekistan 2019 Financial resources, Housing, Human resources, Legal framework, Management activities, Management systems/ management plan,
Other Threats: Demolition and re-building of traditional housing areas
Yes
historic centre of the city of salzburgHistoric Centre of the City of Salzburg austria Austria 2019 Ground transport infrastructure, Housing, Legal framework, Management systems/ management plan, Water infrastructure, No
historic centre of viennaHistoric Centre of Vienna austria Austria 2019 Housing, Legal framework, Major visitor accommodation and associated infrastructure, Yes
historic centres of berat and gjirokastraHistoric Centres of Berat and Gjirokastra albania Albania 2019 Ground transport infrastructure, Housing, Illegal activities, Management activities, Management systems/ management plan,
Other Threats: Lack of adequate fire fighting arrangements in the historic urban zone
No
historic city of ayutthayaHistoric City of Ayutthaya thailand Thailand 2019 Flooding, Management activities, Management systems/ management plan,
Other Threats: Deterioration due to time
No
historic monuments and sites in kaesongHistoric Monuments and Sites in Kaesong democratic people's republic of korea Democratic People's Republic of Korea 2019 Impacts of tourism / visitor / recreation, Management systems/ management plan, No
historic quarter of the seaport city of valparaisoHistoric Quarter of the Seaport City of Valparaíso chile Chile 2019 Commercial development, Housing, Legal framework, Management systems/ management plan, Marine transport infrastructure,
Other Threats: Fire
No
historic sanctuary of machu picchuHistoric Sanctuary of Machu Picchu peru Peru 2019 Avalanche/ landslide, Flooding, Impacts of tourism / visitor / recreation, Management systems/ management plan, No
historic town of zabidHistoric Town of Zabid yemen Yemen 2019 Deliberate destruction of heritage, Financial resources, Housing, Human resources, Land conversion, Management systems/ management plan, Yes
historical monuments at makli, thattaHistorical Monuments at Makli, Thatta pakistan Pakistan 2019 Deliberate destruction of heritage, Earthquake, Erosion and siltation/ deposition, Housing, Illegal activities, Land conversion, Management activities, Management systems/ management plan, Other climate change impacts, Solid waste,
Other Threats: Stability of the foundations (earth mechanics) of the Jam Nizamuddin tomb
No
humberstone and santa laura saltpeter worksHumberstone and Santa Laura Saltpeter Works chile Chile 2019 Management systems/ management plan, Wind,
Other Threats: Extremely fragile nature of the industrial buildings that were constructed using local materials such as timber for frames, corrugated iron sheets for roofs and some walls, in addition to stucco and lightweight construction; Lack of maintenance over the past 40 years; Corrosion of metal cladding and dismantlement of some of the structural elements. A few buildings such as the Leaching House are liable to structural collapse if no support is given
Yes
island of saint-louisIsland of Saint-Louis senegal Senegal 2019 Housing, Management activities, Management systems/ management plan, Water (rain/water table),
Other Threats: Extremely poor state of conservation of numerous derelict buildings endangering occupants
No
islands and protected areas of the gulf of californiaIslands and Protected Areas of the Gulf of California mexico Mexico 2019 Fishing/collecting aquatic resources, Illegal activities,
Other Threats: Serious concerns over the conservation status of two species, vaquita (porpoise species) and totoaba (marine fish)
No
kahuzi-biega national parkKahuzi-Biega National Park democratic republic of the congo Democratic Republic of the Congo 2019 Civil unrest, Commercial hunting, Illegal activities, Land conversion, Mining, War,
Other Threats: Villages in the ecological corridor between the highland and lowland sectors of the park
Yes
kasbah of algiersKasbah of Algiers algeria Algeria 2019 Changes in traditional ways of life and knowledge system, Erosion and siltation/ deposition, Land conversion, Management activities, Management systems/ management plan, No
kathmandu valleyKathmandu Valley nepal Nepal 2019 Air transport infrastructure, Earthquake, Ground transport infrastructure, Housing, Management systems/ management plan, Underground transport infrastructure, No
kenya lake system in the great rift valleyKenya Lake System in the Great Rift Valley kenya Kenya 2019 Governance, Housing, Major visitor accommodation and associated infrastructure, Management systems/ management plan, No
kizhi pogostKizhi Pogost russian federation Russian Federation 2019 Housing, Impacts of tourism / visitor / recreation, Interpretative and visitation facilities, Land conversion, Management activities, Management systems/ management plan, Marine transport infrastructure,
Other Threats: Structural integrity issues at the Church of the Transfiguration
No
koutammakou, the land of the batammaribaKoutammakou, the Land of the Batammariba togo Togo 2019 Financial resources, Forestry /wood production, Housing, Legal framework, Management systems/ management plan, Water (rain/water table),
Other Threats: Emergence of new forms of construction
No
ksar of ait-ben-haddouKsar of Ait-Ben-Haddou morocco Morocco 2019 Deliberate destruction of heritage, Erosion and siltation/ deposition, Flooding, Ground transport infrastructure, Identity, social cohesion, changes in local population and community, Impacts of tourism / visitor / recreation, Management systems/ management plan, No
kyiv: saint-sophia cathedral and related monastic buildings, kyiv-pechersk lavraKyiv: Saint-Sophia Cathedral and Related Monastic Buildings, Kyiv-Pechersk Lavra ukraine Ukraine 2019 Housing, Legal framework, Management systems/ management plan, No
lake turkana national parksLake Turkana National Parks kenya Kenya 2019 Illegal activities, Land conversion, Livestock farming / grazing of domesticated animals, Management systems/ management plan, Oil and gas, Water infrastructure, Yes
lamu old townLamu Old Town kenya Kenya 2019 Air transport infrastructure, Housing, Land conversion, Management systems/ management plan, Marine transport infrastructure, Non-renewable energy facilities, Solid waste,
Other Threats: Deterioration of dwellings
No
liverpool – maritime mercantile cityLiverpool – Maritime Mercantile City united kingdom of great britain and northern ireland United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland 2019 Commercial development, Governance, High impact research / monitoring activities, Housing, Interpretative and visitation facilities, Legal framework, Management systems/ management plan, Society's valuing of heritage, Yes
lorentz national parkLorentz National Park indonesia Indonesia 2019 Financial resources, Fishing/collecting aquatic resources, Ground transport infrastructure, Human resources, Illegal activities, Management systems/ management plan, Mining, Other climate change impacts, No
los katios national parkLos Katíos National Park colombia Colombia 2019 Fishing/collecting aquatic resources, Illegal activities, Major linear utilities, Management systems/ management plan, No
lumbini, the birthplace of the lord buddhaLumbini, the Birthplace of the Lord Buddha nepal Nepal 2019 Air pollution, Commercial development, Housing, Interpretative and visitation facilities, Legal framework, Management activities, Management systems/ management plan, Ritual / spiritual / religious and associative uses, No
maloti-drakensberg parkMaloti-Drakensberg Park lesotho,south africa Lesotho
South Africa
2019 Interpretative and visitation facilities, Legal framework, Major visitor accommodation and associated infrastructure, Management activities, Management systems/ management plan, No
manas wildlife sanctuaryManas Wildlife Sanctuary india India 2019 Civil unrest, Crop production, Financial resources, Illegal activities, Impacts of tourism / visitor / recreation, Invasive/alien terrestrial species, Land conversion, Military training, Water infrastructure, No
manovo-gounda st floris national parkManovo-Gounda St Floris National Park central african republic Central African Republic 2019 Civil unrest, Identity, social cohesion, changes in local population and community, Illegal activities, Livestock farming / grazing of domesticated animals, Management systems/ management plan, Mining, Yes
mausoleum of khoja ahmed yasawiMausoleum of Khoja Ahmed Yasawi kazakhstan Kazakhstan 2019 Housing, Interpretative and visitation facilities, Major visitor accommodation and associated infrastructure, Management systems/ management plan, No
maya site of copanMaya Site of Copan honduras Honduras 2019 High impact research / monitoring activities, Impacts of tourism / visitor / recreation, Legal framework, Management systems/ management plan,
Other Threats: Deterioration of construction materials due to natural decay phenomena
No
medieval monuments in kosovoMedieval Monuments in Kosovo serbia Serbia 2019 Civil unrest, Legal framework, Management systems/ management plan,
Other Threats: Unsatisfactory state of conservation and maintenance of the property
Yes
meidan emam, esfahanMeidan Emam, Esfahan iran (islamic republic of) Iran (Islamic Republic of) 2019 Housing, Underground transport infrastructure, No
memphis and its necropolis – the pyramid fields from giza to dahshurMemphis and its Necropolis – the Pyramid Fields from Giza to Dahshur egypt Egypt 2019 Housing, Interpretative and visitation facilities, Major visitor accommodation and associated infrastructure, Underground transport infrastructure, No
minaret and archaeological remains of jamMinaret and Archaeological Remains of Jam afghanistan Afghanistan 2019 Civil unrest, Erosion and siltation/ deposition, Illegal activities, Management systems/ management plan,
Other Threats: Inclination of the Minaret
Yes
monarch butterfly biosphere reserveMonarch Butterfly Biosphere Reserve mexico Mexico 2019 Illegal activities, Impacts of tourism / visitor / recreation, Land conversion, Major visitor accommodation and associated infrastructure,
Other Threats: Decline in the overwintering population of Monarch butterflies in the property
No
mosi-oa-tunya / victoria fallsMosi-oa-Tunya / Victoria Falls zambia,zimbabwe Zambia
Zimbabwe
2019 Air pollution, Drought, Housing, Impacts of tourism / visitor / recreation, Invasive/alien terrestrial species, Major visitor accommodation and associated infrastructure, Management systems/ management plan, Solid waste, Surface water pollution, Water (extraction) , Water infrastructure, No
mount nimba strict nature reserveMount Nimba Strict Nature Reserve cote d'ivoire,guinea Côte d'Ivoire
Guinea
2019 Financial resources, Ground transport infrastructure, Human resources, Identity, social cohesion, changes in local population and community, Illegal activities, Land conversion, Management systems/ management plan, Mining, Yes
mountain railways of indiaMountain Railways of India india India 2019 Management systems/ management plan, No
nan madol: ceremonial centre of eastern micronesiaNan Madol: Ceremonial Centre of Eastern Micronesia micronesia (federated states of) Micronesia (Federated States of) 2019 Erosion and siltation/ deposition, Impacts of tourism / visitor / recreation, Legal framework, Management systems/ management plan, Yes
natural and cultural heritage of the ohrid regionNatural and Cultural Heritage of the Ohrid region albania,north macedonia Albania
North Macedonia
2019 Ground transport infrastructure, Housing, Impacts of tourism / visitor / recreation, Major visitor accommodation and associated infrastructure, Management systems/ management plan, No
natural and culturo-historical region of kotorNatural and Culturo-Historical Region of Kotor montenegro Montenegro 2019 Changes in traditional ways of life and knowledge system, Effects arising from use of transportation infrastructure, Ground transport infrastructure, Housing, Impacts of tourism / visitor / recreation, Land conversion, Legal framework, Major visitor accommodation and associated infrastructure, Management systems/ management plan, Society's valuing of heritage, No
natural system of wrangel island reserveNatural System of Wrangel Island Reserve russian federation Russian Federation 2019 Identity, social cohesion, changes in local population and community, Marine transport infrastructure, Oil and gas, Solid waste,
Other Threats: Increased human presence
No
ngorongoro conservation areaNgorongoro Conservation Area united republic of tanzania United Republic of Tanzania 2019 Crop production, Governance, Ground transport infrastructure, Identity, social cohesion, changes in local population and community, Illegal activities, Impacts of tourism / visitor / recreation, Interpretative and visitation facilities, Invasive/alien terrestrial species, Land conversion, Livestock farming / grazing of domesticated animals, Major visitor accommodation and associated infrastructure, Management activities, Management systems/ management plan,
Other Threats: Challenging situation of community livelihoods; Condition and conservation of the Laetoli hominid footprints
No
niokolo-koba national parkNiokolo-Koba National Park senegal Senegal 2019 Drought, Ground transport infrastructure, Illegal activities, Invasive/alien terrestrial species, Livestock farming / grazing of domesticated animals, Mining, Translocated species, Water infrastructure, Yes
okapi wildlife reserveOkapi Wildlife Reserve democratic republic of the congo Democratic Republic of the Congo 2019 Ground transport infrastructure, Identity, social cohesion, changes in local population and community, Illegal activities, Mining, Yes
old city of jerusalem and its wallsOld City of Jerusalem and its Walls jerusalem (site proposed by jordan)Jerusalem (Site proposed by Jordan) 2019 Effects arising from use of transportation infrastructure, Governance, High impact research / monitoring activities, Housing, Identity, social cohesion, changes in local population and community, Management activities, Management systems/ management plan,
Other Threats: Natural risk factors; Deterioration of monuments
Yes
old city of sana'aOld City of Sana'a yemen Yemen 2019 Civil unrest, Desertification, Housing, Identity, social cohesion, changes in local population and community, Land conversion, Management activities, War,
Other Threats: Functional decay of the residential neighborhoods; Physical damage and instability of buildings; Problems with the network for the evacuation of rainwater
Yes
old town of ghadamesOld Town of Ghadamès libya Libya 2019 War, Yes
old towns of djenneOld Towns of Djenné mali Mali 2019 Civil unrest, Housing, Land conversion, Management systems/ management plan, Solid waste,
Other Threats: Deterioration of dwellings
Yes
old walled city of shibamOld Walled City of Shibam yemen Yemen 2019 Civil unrest, Financial resources, Flooding, Human resources, War, Water (rain/water table), Yes
osun-osogbo sacred groveOsun-Osogbo Sacred Grove nigeria Nigeria 2019 Fire (widlfires), Ground transport infrastructure, Housing, Impacts of tourism / visitor / recreation, Major visitor accommodation and associated infrastructure, Surface water pollution, No
ouadi qadisha (the holy valley) and the forest of the cedars of god (horsh arz el-rab)Ouadi Qadisha (the Holy Valley) and the Forest of the Cedars of God (Horsh Arz el-Rab) lebanon Lebanon 2019 Financial resources, Housing, Human resources, Illegal activities, Impacts of tourism / visitor / recreation, Land conversion, Legal framework, Livestock farming / grazing of domesticated animals, Major visitor accommodation and associated infrastructure, Management systems/ management plan, No
palace of westminster and westminster abbey including saint margaret’s churchPalace of Westminster and Westminster Abbey including Saint Margaret’s Church united kingdom of great britain and northern ireland United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland 2019 Housing, Interpretative and visitation facilities, Management systems/ management plan, No
palestine: land of olives and vines – cultural landscape of southern jerusalem, battirPalestine: Land of Olives and Vines – Cultural Landscape of Southern Jerusalem, Battir palestine Palestine 2019 Changes in traditional ways of life and knowledge system, Identity, social cohesion, changes in local population and community, Invasive/alien terrestrial species,
Other Threats: Potential construction of a separation fence (wall)
Yes
paris, banks of the seineParis, Banks of the Seine france France 2019
Other Threats: Fire
No
phong nha-ke bang national parkPhong Nha-Ke Bang National Park viet nam Viet Nam 2019 Ground transport infrastructure, Illegal activities, Impacts of tourism / visitor / recreation, Management systems/ management plan, No
port, fortresses and group of monuments, cartagenaPort, Fortresses and Group of Monuments, Cartagena colombia Colombia 2019 Commercial development, Governance, Housing, Identity, social cohesion, changes in local population and community, Impacts of tourism / visitor / recreation, Management systems/ management plan, Marine transport infrastructure, No
qal’at al-bahrain – ancient harbour and capital of dilmunQal’at al-Bahrain – Ancient Harbour and Capital of Dilmun bahrain Bahrain 2019 Ground transport infrastructure, Housing, No
rabat, modern capital and historic city: a shared heritageRabat, Modern Capital and Historic City: a Shared Heritage morocco Morocco 2019 Housing, No
rainforests of the atsinananaRainforests of the Atsinanana madagascar Madagascar 2019 Fire (widlfires), Governance, Illegal activities, Land conversion, Mining, Society's valuing of heritage, Subsistence hunting, Yes
rangiri dambulla cave templeRangiri Dambulla Cave Temple sri lanka Sri Lanka 2019 Changes in traditional ways of life and knowledge system, Impacts of tourism / visitor / recreation, Management systems/ management plan, Pests, Ritual / spiritual / religious and associative uses, Water (rain/water table),
Other Threats: Continued deterioration of the paintings
No
rio plátano biosphere reserveRío Plátano Biosphere Reserve honduras Honduras 2019 Financial resources, Human resources, Identity, social cohesion, changes in local population and community, Illegal activities, Invasive/alien terrestrial species, Land conversion, Legal framework, Livestock farming / grazing of domesticated animals, Management systems/ management plan, Water infrastructure, Yes
rock art in the hail region of saudi arabiaRock Art in the Hail Region of Saudi Arabia saudi arabia Saudi Arabia 2019 Impacts of tourism / visitor / recreation, Interpretative and visitation facilities, Localised utilities, Management systems/ management plan, Water infrastructure,
Other Threats: Visual impact of a rain water diversionary dam and of a water tower
No
rock-art sites of tadrart acacusRock-Art Sites of Tadrart Acacus libya Libya 2019 Deliberate destruction of heritage, Human resources, Illegal activities, War, Yes
rock-hewn churches, lalibelaRock-Hewn Churches, Lalibela ethiopia Ethiopia 2019 Earthquake, Land conversion, Legal framework, Management activities, Management systems/ management plan, Relative humidity, Water (rain/water table),
Other Threats: Impact of the four temporary shelters constructed in 2008; Demolition of most of the traditional “tukul” dwellings
No
royal palaces of abomeyRoyal Palaces of Abomey benin Benin 2019 Governance, Interpretative and visitation facilities, Management systems/ management plan,
Other Threats: Fire at the site
No
salonga national parkSalonga National Park democratic republic of the congo Democratic Republic of the Congo 2019 Civil unrest, Illegal activities, Indigenous hunting, gathering and collecting, Management systems/ management plan, Oil and gas, War, Yes
samarkand – crossroad of culturesSamarkand – Crossroad of Cultures uzbekistan Uzbekistan 2019 Ground transport infrastructure, Housing, Management activities, Management systems/ management plan,
Other Threats: Conservation of urban fabric
No
samarra archaeological citySamarra Archaeological City iraq Iraq 2019 Management systems/ management plan, War, Yes
sangha trinationalSangha Trinational cameroon,central african republic,congo Cameroon
Central African Republic
Congo
2019 Civil unrest, Forestry /wood production, Ground transport infrastructure, Illegal activities, Major linear utilities, Mining, No
sassanid archaeological landscape of fars regionSassanid Archaeological Landscape of Fars Region iran (islamic republic of) Iran (Islamic Republic of) 2019 Management systems/ management plan,
Other Threats: Several serial components at risk of collapse or in a condition of serious deterioration
No
selous game reserveSelous Game Reserve united republic of tanzania United Republic of Tanzania 2019 Financial resources, Illegal activities, Impacts of tourism / visitor / recreation, Land conversion, Legal framework, Management systems/ management plan, Mining, Oil and gas, Water infrastructure,
Other Threats: Significant decline of wildlife populations due to poaching ; Need for increased involvement of local communities
Yes
shiretokoShiretoko japan Japan 2019 Aquaculture, Hyper-abundant species, Impacts of tourism / visitor / recreation, Management systems/ management plan, Other climate change impacts, Water infrastructure,
Other Threats: Anticipated effects of climate change
No
site of palmyraSite of Palmyra syrian arab republic Syrian Arab Republic 2019 Effects arising from use of transportation infrastructure, Ground transport infrastructure, Housing, Illegal activities, Localised utilities, Major linear utilities, Major visitor accommodation and associated infrastructure, Management systems/ management plan, Relative humidity, War,
Other Threats: serious weathering of many stone blocks
Yes
socotra archipelagoSocotra Archipelago yemen Yemen 2019 Civil unrest, Fishing/collecting aquatic resources, Governance, Ground transport infrastructure, Invasive / alien marine species, Legal framework, Livestock farming / grazing of domesticated animals, Management systems/ management plan, Solid waste, Storms, No
south china karstSouth China Karst china China 2019 Governance, Management systems/ management plan, No
stonehenge, avebury and associated sitesStonehenge, Avebury and Associated Sites united kingdom of great britain and northern ireland United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland 2019 Effects arising from use of transportation infrastructure, Ground transport infrastructure, Underground transport infrastructure, No
tai national parkTaï National Park cote d'ivoire Côte d'Ivoire 2019 Illegal activities, Mining, No
talamanca range-la amistad reserves / la amistad national parkTalamanca Range-La Amistad Reserves / La Amistad National Park costa rica,panama Costa Rica
Panama
2019 Illegal activities, Land conversion, Livestock farming / grazing of domesticated animals, Management systems/ management plan, Water infrastructure,
Other Threats: Lack of a long-term biological monitoring program
No
temple zone of sambor prei kuk, archaeological site of ancient ishanapuraTemple Zone of Sambor Prei Kuk, Archaeological Site of Ancient Ishanapura cambodia Cambodia 2019 Illegal activities, Impacts of tourism / visitor / recreation, Management systems/ management plan,
Other Threats: Risk of collapse of some temples
No
the ahwar of southern iraq: refuge of biodiversity and the relict landscape of the mesopotamian citiesThe Ahwar of Southern Iraq: Refuge of Biodiversity and the Relict Landscape of the Mesopotamian Cities iraq Iraq 2019 Legal framework, Management systems/ management plan,
Other Threats: Highly unstable conservation conditions of the archaeological sites
No
the great wallThe Great Wall china China 2019 Impacts of tourism / visitor / recreation, Interpretative and visitation facilities, Underground transport infrastructure, No
the sundarbansThe Sundarbans bangladesh Bangladesh 2019 Changes to oceanic waters, Forestry /wood production, Illegal activities, Management systems/ management plan, Non-renewable energy facilities, Pollution of marine waters, Storms, Water infrastructure,
Other Threats: Dredging of the Pashur River
No
three parallel rivers of yunnan protected areasThree Parallel Rivers of Yunnan Protected Areas china China 2019 Commercial hunting, Major visitor accommodation and associated infrastructure, Management systems/ management plan, Mining, Water infrastructure,
Other Threats: Apparent decline in wildlife populations
No
timbuktuTimbuktu mali Mali 2019 Deliberate destruction of heritage, Management systems/ management plan, War, Yes
tipasaTipasa algeria Algeria 2019 Deliberate destruction of heritage, Erosion and siltation/ deposition, Housing, Human resources, Illegal activities, Impacts of tourism / visitor / recreation, Management activities, Marine transport infrastructure, No
tomb of askiaTomb of Askia mali Mali 2019 Deliberate destruction of heritage, Management systems/ management plan, War, Yes
tombs of buganda kings at kasubiTombs of Buganda Kings at Kasubi uganda Uganda 2019 Ground transport infrastructure, Management activities, Management systems/ management plan,
Other Threats: Fire
Yes
tropical rainforest heritage of sumatraTropical Rainforest Heritage of Sumatra indonesia Indonesia 2019 Governance, Ground transport infrastructure, Illegal activities, Land conversion, Management systems/ management plan, Renewable energy facilities, Yes
tyreTyre lebanon Lebanon 2019 Ground transport infrastructure, Housing, Impacts of tourism / visitor / recreation, Legal framework, Management systems/ management plan,
Other Threats: Insufficient maintenance
No
um er-rasas (kastrom mefa'a)Um er-Rasas (Kastrom Mefa'a) jordan Jordan 2019 Major visitor accommodation and associated infrastructure, Management systems/ management plan,
Other Threats: Unstable structures and lack of security
No
upper middle rhine valleyUpper Middle Rhine Valley germany Germany 2019 Effects arising from use of transportation infrastructure, Ground transport infrastructure, Impacts of tourism / visitor / recreation, Input of excess energy, Major visitor accommodation and associated infrastructure, Management systems/ management plan, Renewable energy facilities, No
vat phou and associated ancient settlements within the champasak cultural landscapeVat Phou and Associated Ancient Settlements within the Champasak Cultural Landscape lao people's democratic republic Lao People's Democratic Republic 2019 Ground transport infrastructure, Housing, Human resources, Impacts of tourism / visitor / recreation, Interpretative and visitation facilities, Management systems/ management plan, Water infrastructure, No
venice and its lagoonVenice and its Lagoon italy Italy 2019 Effects arising from use of transportation infrastructure, Erosion and siltation/ deposition, Governance, Impacts of tourism / visitor / recreation, Legal framework, Management systems/ management plan, Marine transport infrastructure, Other climate change impacts, Water infrastructure,
Other Threats: Climate change and severe weather events / Climate Change impacts on the lagoon ecology and built fabric
No
virunga national parkVirunga National Park democratic republic of the congo Democratic Republic of the Congo 2019 Civil unrest, Illegal activities, Land conversion, Livestock farming / grazing of domesticated animals, Oil and gas, War, Yes
west lake cultural landscape of hangzhouWest Lake Cultural Landscape of Hangzhou china China 2019 Housing, Impacts of tourism / visitor / recreation, Land conversion, No
western caucasusWestern Caucasus russian federation Russian Federation 2019 Ground transport infrastructure, Illegal activities, Impacts of tourism / visitor / recreation, Legal framework, Major visitor accommodation and associated infrastructure, Management systems/ management plan, No
wood buffalo national parkWood Buffalo National Park canada Canada 2019 Management systems/ management plan, Mining, Oil and gas, Other climate change impacts, Water infrastructure,
Other Threats: Lack of engagement with First Nations and Metis in monitoring activities and insufficient consideration of traditional ecological knowledge
No
wulingyuan scenic and historic interest areaWulingyuan Scenic and Historic Interest Area china China 2019 Air pollution, Ground transport infrastructure, Impacts of tourism / visitor / recreation, Surface water pollution, No

* : The threats indicated are listed in alphabetical order; their order does not constitute a classification according to the importance of their impact on the property.
Furthermore, they are presented irrespective of the type of threat faced by the property, i.e. with specific and proven imminent danger (“ascertained danger”) or with threats which could have deleterious effects on the property’s Outstanding Universal Value (“potential danger”).

** : All mission reports are not always available electronically.