Year of inscription on the World Heritage List 1981
Year(s) of inscription on the List of World Heritage in Danger 2004-2014
Threats for which the property was inscribed on the List of World Heritage in Danger
Continuing deterioration and serious threats affecting the property
Desired state of conservation for the removal of the property from the List of World Heritage in Danger
To be defined during the monitoring mission
Corrective measures identified
a) Updating of the statement of Outstanding Universal Value;
b) Delineation of boundaries for core and buffer zones linked to land-use plans and appropriate protection;
c) Implementation of the property’s conservation and management plan;
d) Exetension of the property to include Kilwa Kivinje and Sanje ya Kati.
Previous Committee Decisions see page http://whc.unesco.org/en/list/144/documents/
Requests approved: 0
Total amount approved: USD 51,083
For details, see page http://whc.unesco.org/en/list/144/assistance/
UNESCO Extra-budgetary Funds
Total amount provided to the property: Support from France, Japan and UNESCO (USD 1,438,000) and further by Norway through Funds-in-Trust (USD 201,390) contributes to the implementation of the “Emergency Conservation of Kilwa Kisiwani and Songo Mnara Endangered World Heritage Sites” project.
Previous monitoring missions
ICOMOS mission 23-27 February 2004
Factors affecting the property identified in previous reports
a) Ruins damaged by sea erosion;
b) Collapsing monuments;
c) Lack of clear boundaries of the property and buffer zone;
d) Population pressure; no participation of community;
e) Unclear management systems leading to inactivity;
f) Out of date legal framework.
Illustrative material see page http://whc.unesco.org/en/list/144/
Conservation issues presented to the World Heritage Committee in 2007
During its 30th session, the World Heritage Committee noted the involvement of the Government of Norway in a project entitled “Emergency Conservation of Kilwa Kisiwani and Songo Mnara Endangered World Heritage Sites” which is being implemented by the UNESCO Office in Dar es Salaam. The Committee further noted the receipt of a site Management Plan, a comprehensive Kilwa Tourism Master Plan and a revised Nomination file for the property, which it considered, and which provided an excellent overview of key issues. The Committee requested the State Party to:
a) Revise the Statement of Significance;
b) Confirm whether it intends to propose an extension to the original Nomination to include those areas addressed by the Management Plan, in particular Kilwa Kivinje on the mainland and neighbouring Sanje ya Kati island;
c) Address the recommendations of the 2004 ICOMOS reactive monitoring mission.
In its 2007 report, the State Party has provided a revised Statement of Significance which narrows the focus to the original nominated areas of Kilwa Kisiwani and Songo Mnara. ICOMOS and the World Heritage Centre suggest that this should be formally submitted for approval by the World Heritage Committee in the format of a Statement of Outstanding Universal Value. The report makes no mention of the possibility of extending the site to include the settlement of Kilwa Kivinje.
The report sets out progress in addressing conservation issues. Details are given of work carried out in association with the Norwegian Government to construct gabions along the shore beneath the Gereza fortress on the island of Kilwa Kisiwani, and of planting mangrove plants in shallow water, which will, when grown and enmeshed, break waves from the Indian Ocean. On Songo Mnara a lime kiln and water reservoir have been constructed for on-going small scale conservation work. The Swedish Government, through SIDA, is also supporting the Department of Antiquities with a capacity building programme, under which a number of staff members have received various training-sessions in conservation and management of cultural heritage, both within and outside the country.
The report mentions an emergency conservation project which started in October 2006 and has so far concentrated on Songo Mnara but no details are given as to what this encompasses.
An outline is given of a project to create a land-use plan and boundaries for core and buffer zones based on surveys and mapping of the islands through the district fund and Marine and Coastal Management Environmental Project over the next year. ICOMOS and the World Heritage Centre welcome this initiative, which is urgently needed to allow housing and agricultural activities to take place without damaging the standing monuments and the buried archaeological remains.
It is suggested that buffer zones of 20 and 10 hectares be established for Kilwa Kisiwani and Songo Mnara respectively. The World Heritage Centre and ICOMOS consider that any proposals for delineating boundaries need to be based on a survey of the islands, with particular reference to the remains identified at the time of inscription. The process of establishing boundaries also needs to be linked to appropriate protection.
The report acknowledges the limitations of the current protective arrangements and the need to establish a revised national legal frame work in Tanzania. The process of reviewing the current law has already started with a draft policy document, which is being revised by an Inter-Ministerial Technical Committee. It is anticipated that a new law could be in place by 2010.
Although a section in the report follows the progress of the Management Plan, this is seen as something separate from the other reported activities. There is a need to see the Management Plan as the over-arching document for the property, dealing with all aspects of conservation, day-to-day management, community participation, tourism, etc.
Adequate resources for addressing the major conservation issues related to water ingress of the masonry and unstable structures remain difficult to find. The State Party has approached the Portuguese Government (through the Gulbenkian Foundation), and the World Monuments Fund regarding the possibility of rehabilitating the Portuguese Fort and other monuments such as the Makutani Palace, Husuni Kubwa, and the Malindi Mosque. The World Heritage Centre and ICOMOS suggest that, as a first step, funding should be sought for a detailed cost-estimate Conservation Plan for the main monuments which could serve as a basis for a ten-year Action Plan that might attract financial support. The State Party might also submit an International assistance request for this work.
Analysis and Conclusions of the World Heritage Centre, ICOMOS and ICCROM
Decision Adopted: 31 COM 7A.15
he World Heritage Committee,
a) Follow-up actions on the recommendations of the ICOMOS reactive monitoring mission of 2004;
b) Progress on delineating boundaries and buffer zones, and on updating of the statement of Outstanding Universal Value for formal approval by the World Heritage Committee ;
c)Clarification of its intention to submit a proposal for an extension of the property to include Kilwa Kivinje and Sanje ya Kati and possibly indicate associated revised criteria;
9. Also requests the State Party to invite a World Heritage Centre / ICOMOS joint reactive monitoring mission to assess the progress made in improving the state of conservation of the property, to define the corrective measures and to prepare a draft statement of the desired state of conservation for the property that will enable the Committee define a timeframe for the removal of the property from the List of World Heritage in Danger;
10. Also requests the State Party, in consultation with the World Heritage Centre and ICOMOS, to develop a draft Statement of Outstanding Universal Value including the conditions of integrity and authenticity, for examination by the Committee at its 32nd session in 2008;
11. Decides to retain the Ruins of Kilwa Kisiwani and Ruins of Songo Mnara (United Republic of Tanzania) on the List of World Heritage in Danger.
Decision Adopted: 31 COM 8C.2
The World Heritage Committee,
1.Following the examination of the state of conservation reports of properties inscribed on the List of World Heritage in Danger (WHC-07/31.COM/7A and WHC-07/31.COM/7A.Add, WHC-07/31.COM/7A.Add.2, WHC-07/31.COM/7A.Add.3),
2.Decides to maintain the following properties on the List of World Heritage in Danger: