1.         Kremlin and Red Square, Moscow (Russian Federation) (C 545)

Year of inscription on the World Heritage List  1990

Criteria  (i)(ii)(iv)(vi)

Year(s) of inscription on the List of World Heritage in Danger  N/A

Previous Committee Decisions  see page http://whc.unesco.org/en/list/545/documents/

International Assistance

Requests approved: 0
Total amount approved: USD 0
For details, see page http://whc.unesco.org/en/list/545/assistance/

UNESCO Extra-budgetary Funds

N/A

Previous monitoring missions

6 – 14 December 2007: World Heritage Centre / ICOMOS / ICCROM

Factors affecting the property identified in previous reports

Erection of a monument in honour of Marshal G. Zhukov

Illustrative material  see page http://whc.unesco.org/en/list/545/

Conservation issues presented to the World Heritage Committee in 2008

The World Heritage Committee discussed during its 31st session (Christchurch, 2007) information received concerning the loss of historic fabric in the transformation of a structure called the “Middle Trading Rows”, a five building ensemble (1891-1894) opposite the Kremlin's Spasskaya Tower and near St. Basil’s Cathedral.

The Committee urged the State Party to halt all demolition works within the boundary of the World Heritage property of the Kremlin and Red Square in Moscow or its buffer zone until a detailed assessment of any threats to the outstanding universal value, authenticity and integrity of this property could be carried out.

The state of conservation report requested from the State Party by 1 February 2008 has not been received at the time of preparation of this report.

The joint World Heritage Centre / ICOMOS / ICCROM reactive monitoring mission requested by the World Heritage Committee took place form 6 to 14 December 2007.

The mission noted that the state of conservation of all components of the property was very satisfactory, and also that it did not observe any negative developments in the conservation of the property.

The mission report includes a technical report prepared by the ICOMOS expert which provides a detailed and well illustrated examination of a number of structures within the Kremlin and Red Square precinct (Cathedral of the Annunciation, Cathedral of the Assumption, Bell Tower of Ivan the Great, Cathedral of the Archangel Micheal, Church of the Deposition of the Robe, Grand Palace, St Basil’s Cathedral) and also an analysis of the project transforming the “Middle Trading Rows” complex. This section of the mission report concludes that the structures reviewed are basically in good condition and well maintained.

The current management plan considered by the State Party to be adequate had not been provided to the mission.

The mission also noted some concerns with the effectiveness and the level of overall institutional co-ordination of management measures in place. The mission recommended establishing a Special Coordination Board in order to reinforce the co-ordination between different stakeholders concerned and in particular the Moscow City authorities whose role would be crucial in establishing the buffer zone.  

The mission highlighted the need for preparation of a Statement of outstanding universal value as a basis for orienting all management efforts, and for updating the nomination file with all relevant documentation and visual support, to better reflect the importance and value of this property.

The mission expressed concern for ongoing and accelerated urban development around the World Heritage property. While the mission noted that the interior parts (central courtyard) of the “Middle Trading Rows” complexhad already been demolished some years ago without loss of the outstanding universal value of the property, and that the on-going restoration works of the outer part of the building complex did not constitute a danger to the property at this stage, it also noted a current proposal to establish a luxury hotel and commercial complex utilizing the central courtyard of the complex, and that the architectural design for the central courtyard development was not available for comments.

As a consequence the mission recommended that the State Party:

· Submit to the World Heritage Centre,in conformity with Paragraph 172 of the Operational Guidelines, details concerning all ongoing projects, including visual impact studies for the projects of the “Middle Trading Rows” complex and the “Zaryadye” complex (former Hotel “Russiya”), as well as other planned urban development projects within or nearby the property;

· Conduct, prior to the construction works within the “Middle Trading Rows” complex, necessary soil investigations under the Red Square, St. Basil Cathedral, Kremlin Walls and the “Middle Trading Rows”, including the underground water levels, in order to minimise any impact of the future constructions inside of “Middle Trading Rows” to components of the World Heritage property.

The mission concluded that the State Party should be careful in allowing any new construction within the property or in the surrounding area the property which could visually affect the property prior to the delineation of a buffer zone, the preparation of the visual impact study for existing construction projects and elaboration and approval of the adequate and effective protective juridical regulations of the buffer zone, as well as the establishment of the effective control mechanism and institutional framework between all stakeholders involved in the management and protection of the Kremlin and Red Square in Moscow.

Analysis and Conclusions of the World Heritage Centre, ICOMOS and ICCROM

N/A

Decision Adopted: 32 COM 7B.106

The World Heritage Committee,

1. Having examined Document WHC-08/32.COM/7B.Add,

2. Recalling Decision 31 COM 7B.103, adopted at its 31st session (Christchurch, 2007),

3. Requests the State Party, in line with the recommendation of the Reactive Monitoring mission, to halt any new construction within the property or in the surrounding area the property which could visually affect it prior to:

a) delineation and approval of a buffer zone;

b) approval of adequate and effective protective juridical regulations within the buffer zone;

c) establishment of an effective control mechanism and institutional framework between all stakeholders involved in the management and protection of the Kremlin and Red Square in Moscow, including the establishing a Special Coordination Board aiming at enhancing the protection of the property and its buffer zone;

d) preparation of the visual impact study for existing construction projects;

4. Also requests that the State Party implement the recommendations of the Reactive Monitoring mission, and in particular:

a) submit to the World Heritage Centre, in conformity with Paragraph 172 of the Operational Guidelines, details concerning all ongoing projects, including visual impact studies for the projects of the "Middle Trading Rows" complex and the "Zaryadye" complex (former Hotel "Russiya"), as well as other planned urban development projects within or nearby the World Heritage property,

b) conduct, prior to the construction works within the "Middle Trading Rows" complex, necessary soil investigations under the Red Square, St. Basil Cathedral, Kremlin Walls and the "Middle Trading Rows", including the underground water levels, in order to minimise any impact of future construction inside of "Middle Trading Rows" to components of the World Heritage property,

5. Further requests the State Party to provide the World Heritage Centre with three copies of the Kremlin and Red Square in Moscow World Heritage property management plan ;

6. Reiterates its requests to the State Party to develop, in consultation with the World Heritage Centre and the Advisory Bodies, a draft Statement of Outstanding Universal Value including the conditions of authenticity and integrity, for examination by the World Heritage Committee at its 33rd session in 2009;

7. Requests moreover the State Party to submit to the World Heritage Centre, by 1 February 2009, a detailed report on the state of conservation of the property, including progress reports on the requested measures noted above and described in the Reactive Monitoring mission report, for examination by the World Heritage Committee at its 33rd session in 2009.