Year of inscription on the World Heritage List
Comoé National Park: 1983
Comoé National Park: (ix)(x)
Previous Committee Decisions:
See page http://whc.unesco.org/en/list/475
See page http://whc.unesco.org/en/list/475
Year(s) of inscription on the List of World Heritage in Danger
Threats for which the property was inscribed on the List of World Heritage in Danger The present unrest in Côte d’Ivoire is having an adverse effect on the site, as is poaching of wildlife and fires caused by poachers, over-grazing by large cattle herds and the absence of effective management.
Threats for which the property was inscribed on the List of World Heritage in Danger
The present unrest in Côte d’Ivoire is having an adverse effect on the site, as is poaching of wildlife and fires caused by poachers, over-grazing by large cattle herds and the absence of effective management.
Desired state of conservation for the removal of the property from the List of World Heritage in Danger
Corrective measures identified
Adopted, see pages http://whc.unesco.org/en/decisions/1050 and http://whc.unesco.org/en/decisions/4336
Timeframe for the implementation of the corrective measures
Adopted, see page http://whc.unesco.org/en/decisions/1050
Requests Approved: 0
Total Amount Approved: 97,000USD
|1999||Strengthening the Protection of the Comoe National Park||50,000 USD|
|1993||Purchase of an all-terrain vehicle for Comoe National Park||30,000 USD|
|1988||Purchase of a vehicle for Comoe National Park||17,000 USD|
UNESCO Extra-budgetary Funds
Total amount provided to the property: USD 20,000 in 2006 through the UNESCO Man and Biosphere (MAB) programme for law enforcement and awareness activities. Rapid Response Facility: USD 30,000 for an intervention mission in the park in 2010.
Previous monitoring missions
June 2006: joint World Heritage Centre / IUCN monitoring mission.
Factors affecting the property identified in previous reports
a) Conflict and political instability;
b) Lack of management control and access;
d) Encroachment: human occupation and agricultural pressure;
e) Bush fires.
Current conservation issues
On 19 January 2012, the State Party submitted a report on the state of conservation of the property which describes progress made in implementing the corrective measures adopted by the World Heritage Committee at its 30th session (Vilnius, 2006) and the additional corrective measure adopted at its 35th session (UNESCO, 2011). The report notes that the application of corrective measures is supported by the implementation of two projects: the” PARC-CI” project (Projet d’Appui à la Relance de la Conservation des Parcs et Réserves ) with funding of USD 2.54 million from the GEF / World Bank, and the “Opération transitoire de sécurisation du parc National de la Comoé”, financed by the Ivorian Government. The property also received 16.4 million CFA francs from the Rapid Response Facility (RRF). In addition, IUCN received reports indicating the possibility that a French debt relief fund could enable sustainable funding for the park. The report indicates that with the end of the post-election crisis, State authority over the property has now been restored. However, the State Party points out that the post-election crisis engendered loss of material and archives, and the looting of offices. Inadequate financial and material resources and damage incurred between 2002 and 2011 have further threatened the security of the property. The report notes the following efforts to implement corrective measures:
a) Establish, as a matter of urgency, an effective system of control and patrolling for the whole property, in close collaboration with the armed forces, and giving priority to the development and rehabilitation of necessary infrastructures
The State Party reports on the implementation of the temporary surveillance strategy developed in 2009. Thus, with the support from the two projects and the RRF mentioned above enabled the acquisition of equipment, the training of specialized agents, and a wide-ranging patrol. During 2011, three patrols consisting of four teams of 75 officers were deployed for ten days both inside and outside the property. These patrols were conducted by the Ivorian OFFICE OF Parks and Reserves (OIPR) with the support of Côte d'Ivoire Republican Forces and seven village auxiliaries; they apprehended 7 poachers, 6 gold diggers, 11 12-caliber rifles, 8250 12-gauge cartridges, bags of smoked fish and smoke-dried meat, and 686 planks of timber. In addition, 13 cattle ranchers were driven out of the park. Infrastructure rehabilitation work in Bouna and Gawi is being undertaken to improve the working conditions of the patrols. The report notes however the loss of a quantity of equipment during the post-election crisis, and only one surveillance troop transport vehicle is currently available.
The World Heritage Centre and IUCN note with satisfaction that the normalization of the socio-political situation of the country and the availability of funding has enabled the initiation of efforts to improve security within the property. However they believe that with three 10-day patrols, surveillance coverage remains extremely limited in view of the huge pressure on the property.
The World Heritage Centre received two reports of surveillance missions of the OIPR carried out in January and February 2012. These reports indicate the presence of numerous signs of poaching and transhumance over the entire property, and in addition to transhumance, gold panning and the presence of crop fields were also observed. At the same time, the reports note extremely low densities of wildlife (no sightings during the January 2012 mission, a few sightings in the middle of the park during the February 2012 mission).
b) Restore, as a matter of urgency, the integrity of the property, by removing cattle from the park and addressing agricultural encroachment
The report notes that following the normalisation of the socio-political situation in the country, two missions to evict cattle ranchers were organized. In addition, with the support from the RRF, four information and awareness-raising sessions were held with, as main result, the voluntary departure of a hundred cattle ranchers settled in the property since 2003. The administrative authorities organized two meetings with all the stakeholders including infiltrated ranchers and planters. Thus, an unspecified date was set to fully clear the park. It was agreed that funding will be sought to undertake agro-pastoral improvements in transhumance corridors on the outskirts of the park. The State Party also reports that in the framework of the implementation of residency measures, with the support of the RRF, local NGOs and nearby radio stations have organized activities to raise public awareness.
The World Heritage Centre and IUCN recall that an aerial survey of the wildlife and flora made in March 2010 by the Wild Chimpanzee Foundation (WCF) and the OIPR, with support from the German Society for International Cooperation (GIZ) revealed that 90% of the total population of mammals present within the property were domestic animals and that cattle grazing was responsible for a significant degradation of the ecosystem of the property.
c) Develop and launch the implementation of a management plan based on the model management plan established for the national network of protected areas
The State Party indicates that a development and management plan has been elaborated and will be finalized by an international expert, who will also produce a three-year emergency plan. The results should be approved and made available in February 2012.
However, the World Heritage Centre and IUCN note that the management plan had not yet been submitted by the State Party at the time of this present report. In addition, they also recall that the Committee had requested the State Party to set up a revised zoning for the property which takes full account of its status as World Heritage Property and Biosphere Reserve.
d) Extend the activities of the management structure to encompass the entire property
The State Party indicates that the control of the entire park is now effective following the installation of all the major military commands in the Central, North and West zones. Thus, since October 2011, the agents of four sectors have returned to their workstations. Because of accommodation difficulties, the State Party had planned that the agents of the Kong sector would only return to their base in January 2012. A total of 90 agents, including managers, supervisors and enforcement officers, of which 77 surveillance officers and 12 office agents, are deployed at the headquarters of the Zone Directorate and in the different sectors of the property. An expert in park surveillance was recruited for the implementation of the surveillance strategy.
e) Evolution of species of wildlife populations and mining exploitation
The State Party provides no information on the current status of the populations of flagship species of the property, but its report indicates that it plans to conduct an aerial survey in 2012. IUCN has received reports indicating that an inventory was underway at the time of writing the present report, in March 2012. The results of this inventory should be provided to the World Heritage Centre prior to the 36th session of the World Heritage Committee.
The World Heritage Centre and IUCN recall that the Committee at its 35th session (UNESCO, 2011), had requested the State Party to confirm officially that no mining exploration license covering the property has been granted. They note that the State Party has still not provided any information on this matter.
The World Heritage Centre and IUCN recall that the World Heritage Committee at its 35th session (UNESCO, 2011), had expressed grave concern over the fact that the Outstanding Universal Value (OUV) of the property was severely compromised and had insisted that urgent measures be taken to restore the wildlife, flora, and the ecosystems within the property. The World Heritage Centre and IUCN note that the normalization of the socio-political situation has enabled the resumption of the management activities throughout the property (now entirely under State control), but are however concerned about the difficulties faced by the State Party as a result of impacts of the post-election crisis.
The World Heritage Centre and IUCN consider that the results of the inventory which appear to be foreseen March 2012 should enable the assessment of the current status of the OUV. They consider that with the normalisation of the situation, a three-year project to rehabilitate the property with clear and achievable goals must be urgently prepared in order to implement a strategy for restoring the integrity of the property. They believe that the emergency plan should focus on an urgent resumption of control of the property and focus first and foremost on the rampant poaching and the evacuation of livestock and agricultural encroachments. IUCN notes in particular that its Protected Areas Programme in Central and West Africa (PAPACO) is ready to support this process. The World Heritage Centre and IUCN recommend to the World Heritage Committee to encourage the State Party, as soon as the rehabilitation project has been developed, to mobilize the necessary funds for its implementation and to launch an appeal to the international community for this purpose.
With a view to restoring security within the property, the World Heritage Centre and IUCN recommend to the World Heritage Committee to request the State Party to invite a World Heritage Centre / IUCN reactive monitoring mission to assess the state of conservation and the status of the OUV, update the corrective measures which will form the basis of the rehabilitation project, and develop a proposal for the Desired state of conservation for the removal of the property from the List of World Heritage in Danger. They consider that the property should be maintained on the List of World Heritage in Danger until its integrity is restored and the reestablishment of populations of key wildlife and flora in the property has been demonstrated.
Decision Adopted: 36COM 7A.2
1. Having examined Document WHC-12/36.COM/7A,
2. Recalling Decision 35 COM 7A.2, adopted at its 35th session (UNESCO, 2011),
3. Notes with satisfaction the normalisation of the socio-political situation of the country and the restoration of State authority over the property as reported by the State Party;
4. Reiterates its utmost concern that the Outstanding Universal Value of the property appears to be seriously compromised and considers that a census of the populations of key species and indications of poaching and other threats such as the straying of cattle and agricultural encroachment is necessary to assess the status of Outstanding Universal Value of the property;
5. Requests the State Party, with the support from IUCN, to develop a three-year project to rehabilitate the property with clear and achievable goals, and encourages the State Party to mobilize the necessary funds for its implementation;
6. Appeals to the international community and donors to support the implementation of the requested rehabilitation project;
7. Urges the State Party to strengthen efforts to implement the corrective measures, in particular by strengthening surveillance to eliminate poaching, as well as evacuating livestock and agricultural encroachment on the property, to restore wildlife and flora within the property;
8. Also requests the State Party to invite an IUCN mission to assess the state of conservation and the status of Outstanding Universal Value, update the corrective measures which will form the basis of the rehabilitation project and develop a proposal for the Desired state of conservation for the removal of the property from the List of World Heritage in Danger;
9. Reiterates its request to the State Party to officially confirm that no mining exploration license covering the property has been granted;
10. Further rquests the State Party to submit to the World Heritage Centre, by 1 February 2013, a detailed report on the state of conservation of the property, on the results of the inventory of March 2012, on the implementation of the revised corrective measures, and on the mining issue, for examination by the World Heritage Committee at its 37th session in 2013;
11. Decides to retain Comoé National Park (Cote d’Ivoire) on the List of World Heritage in Danger.
Decision Adopted: 36COM 8C.2
The World Heritage Committee,
1. Following the examination of the state of conservation reports of properties inscribed on the List of World Heritage in Danger (WHC-12/36.COM/7A and WHC-12/36.COM/7A.Add),
2. Decides to maintain the following properties on the List of World Heritage in Danger: