Year of inscription on the World Heritage List
Group of Monuments at Hampi: 1986
Group of Monuments at Hampi: (i)(iii)(iv)
Previous Committee Decisions:
See page http://whc.unesco.org/en/list/475
See page http://whc.unesco.org/en/list/475
Year(s) of inscription on the List of World Heritage in Danger
Threats for which the property was inscribed on the List of World Heritage in Danger The inclusion of the Groups of Monuments at Hampi on the List of World Heritage in Danger was prompted by the construction of two suspension bridges which dominate the natural environment and threaten the World Heritage site's integrity. The construction of a road towards one of the bridges will result in a major increase in heavy goods traffic and has already resulted in the dismantling and reconstruction of an important historic monument - a mandapa (a pillared stone rest-house) within the borders of the site. This dislocation signifies serious problems in the implementation of cultural heritage policies and regulations.
Threats for which the property was inscribed on the List of World Heritage in Danger
The inclusion of the Groups of Monuments at Hampi on the List of World Heritage in Danger was prompted by the construction of two suspension bridges which dominate the natural environment and threaten the World Heritage site's integrity. The construction of a road towards one of the bridges will result in a major increase in heavy goods traffic and has already resulted in the dismantling and reconstruction of an important historic monument - a mandapa (a pillared stone rest-house) within the borders of the site. This dislocation signifies serious problems in the implementation of cultural heritage policies and regulations.
Desired state of conservation for the removal of the property from the List of World Heritage in Danger
Corrective measures identified
Requests Approved: 0
Total Amount Approved: 92,370USD
|2003||Emergency assistance to elaborate a management plan for Hampi World Heritage site in Danger||75,000 USD|
|2001|| Study trip of Indian site management authorities of Hampi W H Property in Danger to U K to increase national and local capacity for enhanced management (NOT IMPLEMENTED)
Reapproval: 09 Apr, 2002 (n°1522 - 17,370 USD)
UNESCO Extra-budgetary Funds
Total amount provided to the property: Funding under the France-UNESCO Co-operation Agreement for expert missions (2003, 2005, 2006, 2007, 2008 and 2009) for a total amount of 20,000 Euros.
Previous monitoring missions
2000: World Heritage Centre/ICOMOS reactive monitoring mission; 2001: expert technical assessment mission; 2003 and 2004: World Heritage Centre and experts advisory missions; August 2005: World Heritage Centre/ICOMOS advisory mission; January 2007: World Heritage Centre/ICOMOS mission; March 2009: UNESCO New Delhi Office technical mission to the property.
|2007||Report on the joint UNESCO – ICOMOS reactive monitoring mission to the group of monuments at Hampi (Karnataka, India) 11 - 18 January 2007|
Factors affecting the property identified in previous reports
a) Lack of an operational site management plan;
b) Lack of traffic regulations limiting heavy duty vehicular traffic.
Current conservation issues
The Group of Monuments at Hampi was inscribed on the World Heritage in Danger List in 1999, due to the partial construction of a cable-suspended bridge within the protected archaeological area, which threatened the property’s integrity and authenticity. Construction work was subsequently suspended and several mitigation measures were implemented between 2003 and 2006.
Recalling its Decision 28 COM 15A.24, adopted at its 28th session (Suzhou, 2008), commending the State Party for its decision to consider the vehicular bridge to be temporary, pending the identification of a long-term solution within the comprehensive site management plan, the World Heritage Committee decided to remove the property from the List of World Heritage in Danger in 2006 and requested the State Party to “reconsider and adapt the design and dimensions of the Anegundi Bridge respecting the visual integrity of the property” and to address long-term concerns over the impact of the bridge with regard to heavy vehicle traffic and illegal construction activities (Decision 30 COM 7A.24). Subsequent decisions (31 COM 7B.81 and 32 COM 7B.70) contained requests to the State Party to implement the recommendations of the January 2007 joint World Heritage Centre/ICOMOS reactive monitoring mission and to submit associated documentation to the World Heritage Centre and Advisory Bodies for review.
On 22 January 2009, the World Heritage Centre was informed, by the UNESCO Office in New Delhi, of the collapse of a portion of the Anegundi Bridge, following the resumption of work on site, causing 8 deaths and injuring some twenty persons among the workers. By letter dated 22 January 2009, the World Heritage Centre expressed its condolences to the State Party and requested further information on the situation.
The State Party submitted a state of conservation report to the World Heritage Centre on 30 January 2009, which provides information on the collapse of the Anegundi Bridge and outlines progress at the site as follows:
a) Anegundi Bridge
Construction work on the Anegundi Bridge was resumed in mid January 2009. On 22 January 2009, following the collapse of the Anegundi side of the bridge, public entry was restricted and additional security and safety measures put into place for the remaining part of the bridge by the Karnataka State Government Authorities. Consultations are ongoing between the Archaeological Survey of India (ASI) and the State Government of Karnataka with regard to the future of the Anegundi Bridge.
b) Integrated management plan (IMP) and Statement of Outstanding Universal Value
The integrated management plan (IMP) and Statement of Outstanding Universal Value are being finalized by the Hampi World Heritage Area Management Authority (HWHAMA) in consultation with ASI and other stakeholders.
Tasks identified in the IMP currently being taken up to address problems of a living heritage site include the preparation of an accurate base map, establishment of a technical unit within the HWHAMA, financial and technical strengthening of HWHAMA, preparation of a Master Plan (Land Use Plan), establishment of an Integrated Information Management Centre, development of a tourism strategy, interpretation strategy and urban design guidelines, rationalization of the property boundaries and a Joint Heritage Management Programme (no details were given about what this programme encompasses).
The State Party reports that new proposed boundaries for the property and its buffer zone have been clearly identified as part of the new IMP. The total area falling under HWHAMA after the rationalization of the buffer zone is 236 sq kms in comparison to the original area of 136 sq kms. This has not yet been officially submitted to the World Heritage Committee for approval.
The Government of Karnataka has approved the appointment of new staff and an additional grant of USD 48,214 for the current financial year. A recruitment process is underway to fill the new positions. A new location has been identified for the interpretation centre on the north side of the Kamalapuram settlement, which will be one of the main entries to the prime archaeological area. The State Party reports that the recommendations of the IMP have been incorporated into a Master Plan notified under the Karnataka Town and Country Planning Act, as of August 2008, and thus is now integrated into the National and State Planning framework.
The World Heritage Centre and the Advisory Bodies note the continuing efforts of the State Party to improve the management of the property, including by building capacity within the HWHAMA, by relocating the interpretation centre, and by identifying new extended boundaries of the property. The World Heritage Centre and the Advisory Bodies also note, however, that a copy of the approved version of the Master Plan based on the IMP; a draft Statement of Outstanding Universal Value; an official request for the modification of the property’s boundaries; and a transport study of regional and local scope with new traffic regulations for heavy vehicles within the property have not yet been received.
The collapse of the bridge has made the question of its modified design no longer relevant. Noting that consultations are on-going between the ASI and Karnataka State authorities to determine the future of the bridge, the World Heritage Centre and the Advisory Bodies suggest that a new, more appropriate location for a vehicular bridge be identified by the State Party outside the property, as well as outside the extended boundaries which are considered for its possible extension, upon reviewing the transport study expected to be completed in the coming months, and recommend the complete demolition of the remaining parts of the bridge to preempt any accidents.
A mission to the property was organised by the UNESCO New Delhi Office in March 2009, composed of a conservation architect-planner seconded from the French Ministry of Culture, a town planner and an Indian conservation architect-planner. The mission identified the need for the early completion and official notification of detailed building regulations for all towns and villages within the new proposed boundaries of the property, especially within its four settlements (Hampi, Kaddirapuram, Kamalapuram and Anegundi), as well as for vigilant control over the continued construction of illegal buildings, particularly in Virupapuragadda Island and Hampi villages. The mission further noted the proliferation of social housing for the poor being constructed on hillocks with poor drainage and living conditions, and that these are also undermining the site's landscape. There is an urgent need to adopt and implement the IMP, in order to address the issues through putting in place appropriate development control.
Decision Adopted: 33COM 7B.71
The World Heritage Committee,
1. Having examined Document WHC-09/33.COM/7B,
2. Recalling Decision 32 COM 7B.70, adopted at its 32nd session (Quebec City, 2008),
3. Notes the substantial work undertaken at the property by the Hampi World Heritage Area Management Authority (HWHAMA), notably the identification of the new proposed boundaries of the property and its buffer zone as part of the new integrated management plan (IMP);
4. Requests the State Party to:
a) Draft, in consultation with the World Heritage Centre and ICOMOS, an updated Statement of Outstanding Universal Value, and submit it to the World Heritage Centre, for examination by the World Heritage Committee,
b) Consider officially submitting a request for the extension of the boundaries of the property and its buffer zone according to the procedures indicated in the paragraphs 163-164 of the Operational Guidelines, and
c) Adopt and implement the IMP and incorporate fully its recommendations in the Master Plan, notably through the development and official adoption of detailed building regulations applicable for each category of zones within the new proposed boundaries of the property and its buffer zone, as well as the related urban design guidelines;
5. Offers its condolences for the death of eight persons and its sympathy for some twenty injured due to the collapse of the Anegundi Bridge during construction;
6. Encourages the State Party to demolish the remaining pillars of the collapsed bridge (taking into account security concerns and negative visual impacts) and to consider a new, more appropriate location for a vehicular bridge outside the current and possible future boundaries of the property;
7. Expresses its concern over illegal constructions and other developments, such as social housing projects, within the extended boundaries which are being considered for the possible extension of the property, particularly in Virupapura Gada Island and Hampi Villages, which appear to have a negative impact on the integrity of the landscape;
8. Requests the State Party to submit to the World Heritage Centre by 1 February 2010 a draft Statement of Outstanding Universal Value, the adopted IMP, and a report on the progress made in the implementation of the recommendations contained in paragraphs 4 and 6 above, for examination by the World Heritage Committee at its 34th session in 2010.