1.         Kyiv: Saint-Sophia Cathedral and Related Monastic Buildings, Kyiv-Pechersk Lavra (Ukraine) (C 527bis)

Year of inscription on the World Heritage List  1990

Criteria  (i)(ii)(iii)(iv)

Year(s) of inscription on the List of World Heritage in Danger  N/A

Previous Committee Decisions  see page http://whc.unesco.org/en/list/527/documents/

International Assistance

Requests approved: 0 (from 1998-2009)
Total amount approved: USD 44,720
For details, see page http://whc.unesco.org/en/list/527/assistance/

UNESCO Extra-budgetary Funds

N/A

Previous monitoring missions

May 1999: ICOMOS expert mission; April 2006: expert mission (Italian Funds-in-Trust); November 2007: World Heritage Centre information meeting for site managers; March 2009: World Heritage Centre/ICOMOS reactive monitoring mission.

Factors affecting the property identified in previous reports

Urban development pressure

Illustrative material  see page http://whc.unesco.org/en/list/527/

Conservation issues presented to the World Heritage Committee in 2010

The State Party submitted a state of conservation report on 29 January 2010 and supplementary information on 1 February 2010, as requested by the World Heritage Committee at its 33rd session (Seville, 2009).

a) Management

A Law “On Amendments to Certain Legislative Acts of Ukraine on protection of cultural heritage”, including specific measures to create an unified system for the management of World Heritage properties, is currently under evaluation by the Ukrainian Parliament. No timetable has been provided. 

b) Catacombs of Kiev Pechersk Lavra

The World Heritage Committee had expressed concern at the conditions of the Catacombs of Kiev Pechersk Lavra. The State Party reports that the overall state of conservation of the Lavra caves is satisfactory. A system of permanent monitoring of their safety, temperature, etc. has been established. However, the State Party acknowledges an unsatisfactory state of conservation of some unexplored side branches of the cave complexes. A comprehensive study of these areas includes, in particular, a survey, research on the ancient inscriptions and on ancient fresco paintings. A draft programme for the complex rehabilitation of the “Varangian caves” has been established. The State Party also reports that instability in the section "Batyi slaughter", an emergency situation since 2005, has been stabilized and reinforced. A project of restoration work in the National Kyiv-Pechersk Historical and Cultural Reserve, has been prepared within the framework of a 2009 State Programme developed in connection with the 2012 Union of European Football Associations (UEFA) Cup in Ukraine.

c) Saint-Sophia Cathedral

The modernization of utility services at St. Sophia Cathedral, restoration of mural painting in the Apostolic Chapel of the Cathedral, restoration of the Zaborovsky Gate and the renovation of the “corps de garde” are being carried out within the framework of the Programme for the preservation of monuments of the National Conservation Area "St. Sophia of Kyiv" for 2003 - 2010, approved by the Cabinet of Ministers.

d) Urban Planning framework and boundary issues

Since 2009, a new Urban Master Plan, including a new City Zoning Plan, has been developed. This plan will take into account the boundaries of the World Heritage property and its buffer zones. A stringent regime should be defined for buffer zones. A proposal for an eventual creation of common buffer zone for all components, extended to the Dnieper slopes, is under evaluation. The documentation on the cultural landscape of the right bank Dnieper is under preparation. No timescale provided for these activities. A General Plan for the National Kyiv-Pechersk Historical and Cultural Reserve, one of the components of the property, which is still under elaboration, has to be integral part of a new Urban Master Plan.

e) Development in Buffer Zone and Setting

In 2009, the authorities reviewed all new construction or reconstruction project proposals within the boundaries of the World Heritage property and its buffer zone. The information on these proposals will be transmitted to the World Heritage Centre.

On 15 February 2010, the State Party met with ICOMOS representatives on the issue concerning the construction of the complex at 17-23 Honchara Street, located in the buffer zone of this World Heritage property. Following this meeting, the World Heritage Centre and ICOMOS have been informed that, despite the World Heritage Committee’s decision (Decision 33 COM 7B.125) concerning the state of conservation of this World Heritage property, construction works are ongoing at the site in an accelerated manner.

The World Heritage Centre and ICOMOS are deeply concerned about the impact that such constructions could have on the Outstanding Universal Value of the World Heritage property, and strongly recommend the State Party to implement the World Heritage Committee’s decision concerning this property. 

The World Heritage Centre and ICOMOS recommend to carefully examine the state of conservation of this property, with a view to consider, in the absence of substantial progress by 2011, to inscribe the World Heritage property of Kiev: Saint Sophia Cathedral and related monastic building, Kiev-Pechersk, Ukraine, on the List of the World Heritage in Danger.

Analysis and Conclusions of the World Heritage Centre, ICOMOS and ICCROM

N/A

Decision Adopted: 34 COM 7B.103

The World Heritage Committee,

1. Having examined Document WHC-10/34.COM/7B,

2. Recalling Decision 33 COM 7B.125, adopted at its 33rd session (Seville, 2009),

3. Notes reparation works and monitoring activities of the key monuments of the National Conservation Area "Saint Sophia of Kyiv" as well as catacombs at the Lavra site;

4. Also notes that a complex rehabilitation programme for the "Varangian caves" is being prepared and requests the State Party to submit a copy to the World Heirtage Centre for review by the Advisory Bodies;

5. Deeply regrets that no moratorium has been put in place on a number of projects until an Urban Master Plan has considered appropriate uses for these sites, and reiterates its requests to the State Party to halt these projects in the light of their lack of conformity with regulations and their potential adverse impact on the Outstanding Universal Value of the property:

a) Buildings on the territory around the Arsenal and the earth fortification following the international competition,

b) A hotel complex around Saint Spas of Berestove Church,

c) A hotel and residential complex on the land of the former military factories near the Arsenal,

d) Buildings in the buffer zone of the Saint Sophia Cathedral,

e) High-rise buildings that could compromise the panorama of the historical monastic landscape along the Dnieper;

6. Urges the State Party to adopt the Law "On Amendments to Certain Legislative Acts of Ukraine on Protection of Cultural Heritage" and also requests the State Party to approve urgently a new city urban master plan, including a conservation master plan for the property and its buffer zone;

7. Also urges the State Party to provide three printed copies and an electronic version of the draft integrated management plan of the property for review by the World Heritage Centre and the Advisory Bodies;

8. Also reiterates its request to the State Party to consider extending the eastern boundary of the buffer zone of the Saint Sophia site to include Maidant Nezalejnosti Square as an important part of the urban structure, and to initiate a study on visual perspectives of the property in the wider context of the monastic riverside landscape;

9. Further requests the State Party to transmit to the World Heritage Centre, in accordance with Paragraph 172 of the Operational Guidelines, a description of any intention to undertake or to authorize major restoration or new construction projects which may affect the Outstanding Universal Value of the property;

10. Requests furthermore the State Party to invite a joint World Heritage Centre/ICOMOS reactive monitoring mission to the property to assess the overall state of conservation of the property and the implementation of the World Heritage Committee's decisions;

11. Finally requests the State Party to submit to the World Heritage Centre, by 1 February 2011, a report on the state of conservation of the property and on the steps taken to implement the above recommendations, for examination by the World Heritage Committee at its 35th session in 2011.

Decision Adopted: 34 COM 8B.36

The World Heritage Committee,

1. Having examined Documents WHC-10/34.COM/8B and WHC-10/34.COM/INF.8B1,

2. Defers the examination of the extension of Kiev: Saint-Sophia Cathedral and Related Monastic Buildings, Kiev Pechersk Lavra to include Saint Cyril's Church and Saint Andrew's Church, Ukraine, to the World Heritage List in order to allow the State Party to:

a) Review and expand the comparative analysis for Saint Cyril's Church with Byzantine churches and for the mural scheme for Saint Andrew's Church the stylistic genesis and then its influence in the Orthodox Christian world;

b) Review the boundaries around Saint Cyril's Church in order to extend it so as to include the former walled monastery and form a homogeneous and coherent ensemble separated from the hospital;

c) Consider creating a buffer zone north-east of Saint Andrew's Church, on the hillside below the building. This point should be considered in conjunction with the recommendation of Decision 33 COM 7B.125 concerning the buffer zone for Saint-Sophia Cathedral;

d) Clarify the texts and responsibilities for the implementation of protection for the property's various components and the buffer zones, and specify the legal status of the Reserve (or National Conservation Area) of Saint-Sophia of Kiev. This point should be considered in conjunction with the recommendations of Decision 33 COM 7B.125;

e) Implement a unique system of management which involves the various stakeholders of the properties (the two ministries involved, the Reserve, the museums, the Municipality, the local communities, etc.), in response to the current fragmented management, and in accordance with Decision 33 COM 7B.125;

f) Implement a unified management plan for the properties, buffer zones, and landscape protection of the Orthodox Metropolate of Kiev; through its implementation, focus on resolving the problems of unregulated urban development, already raised and highlighted by the reactive monitoring mission to the property already inscribed (March 2009) and Decision 33 COM 7B.125; define and implement a town-planning system that is compatible with the property's values; and implement the cultural and landscape project;

g) Consider developing a comprehensive works strategy for the medium term for the wet and fragile soil under the foundations of Saint Cyril's Church;

h) Reschedule the project for heavy interventions for the unstable soil supporting Saint Andrew's Church and study more extensively the context in order to better identify the work required, considering the least intrusive solutions, preferably focusing on the causes of the instability;

i) Confirm for Saint Andrew's Church the presence of fire-alarm systems, and whether there is a specific surveillance team for the property other than the museum staff; state for Saint Cyril's Church the number and status of the active guards and the location of the fire brigade in the event of a fire;

j) Implement quantified monitoring of the interior and exterior architectural and decorative components and murals of the churches;

k) Provide a summary in French or in English of the applicable texts concerning the protection of the properties, the proposed extensions, and the buffer zones;

3. Recommends the State Party to:

a) Clarify the meaning and use of the terms 'department' and 'museum' in reference to the Churches of Saint Cyril and Saint Andrew, as they seem to overlap;

b) Ensure that restoration work is carried out in complete conformity with international standards under the supervision of a qualified manager;

c) Consider limiting the excessive use of candles, which may compromise the murals and the iconostasis paintings for the day-to-day management of Saint Andrew's Church;

d) Control the immediate surroundings of Saint Andrew's Church, which have been invaded by a large number of unsightly tourist trading huts;

e) Consider an overall tourist infrastructure project and a general maintenance programme for the surroundings of the properties as part of the unified management plan.