1.         ManĂº National Park (Peru) (N 402bis)

Year of inscription on the World Heritage List  1987

Criteria  (ix)(x)

Year(s) of inscription on the List of World Heritage in Danger  N/A

Previous Committee Decisions  see page http://whc.unesco.org/en/list/402/documents/

International Assistance

Requests approved: 0 (from 1987-1993)
Total amount approved: USD 80,000
For details, see page http://whc.unesco.org/en/list/402/assistance/

UNESCO Extra-budgetary Funds

Total amount provided to the property: USD 28,750 (Rapid Response Facility - RRF)

Previous monitoring missions

N/A

Factors affecting the property identified in previous reports

a) Agricultural encroachment;

b) Cattle ranching;

c) Deforestation/ Illegal logging;

d) Hydrocarbon concesssions. 

Illustrative material  see page http://whc.unesco.org/en/list/402/

Conservation issues presented to the World Heritage Committee in 2010

On 2 March 2010, the State Party submitted a short report on the state of conservation of the property. This report provides an overview of the multiple threats currently affecting the property, including agricultural encroachment, cattle ranching, illegal logging and the management and financing situation.

a) Agricultural encroachment

The State Party notes that agriculture is mainly undertaken by indigenous peoples to sustain their livelihoods and thus has little impact on the integrity of the property. The report further notes that human occupation is restricted to a limited area representing only 2.32% of the total area of the property, and that this area coincides with the “Special Use Zone” of the Manu Biosphere Reserve. This zone is mostly occupied by indigenous peoples groups that lived in the area prior to the establishment of the National Park. Key threats to the integrity of the park are associated to the expansion of the agricultural frontier, including coca cultivation in the buffer zone, increasing livestock, illegal extraction of timber and non-timber forest resources, as well as illegal hunting and fishing. The report does not provide an assessment on the trends of these threats and their impact on the conservation of the property. IUCN has received reports that the population of the agricultural community of Callanga is increasing, resulting in more livestock and more land being converted to agriculture in the area.

b) Cattle ranching

The report indicates that cattle ranching, which existed before the creation of the park, is limited to the recovery zone of the property in line with existing agreements to temporarily maintain this activity. Whilst the report notes that the number of cattle cannot be increased, it does not provide any information on the number of cattle currently present, nor whether this is impacting the integrity of the property. IUCN has received reports that the high altitude areas of the park are being degraded by grazing. The World Heritage Centre and IUCN recommend that the State Party explore the possibility of addressing this issue through REDD+ (Reducing Emissions from Deforestation and Forest Degradation) processes, with the long-term aim of excluding all domestic animals from the property and a program of reforestation and recuperation of natural vegetation cover in the area.

c) llegal logging

The State Party notes that logging mainly consists in the collection of trunks fallen and dragged by the Manu River during the rainy season due to the erosion of the river banks by flooding. The report indicates that these trees are mainly used by local communities living in the buffer zone of the park. However, IUCN notes that it continues to receive reports of illegal logging within the property, particularly illegal mahogany logging.

d) Management and financing

The State Party report notes that the financial resources allocated to managing the park have increased from USD 205,719 in 2009 to USD 260,221 in 2010. However, no information is provided on whether or not these resources are sufficient to manage a park that is over 1.7 million ha with very difficult conditions for patrolling and control. It is also noted that the State Party is in the process of updating the Management Plan for the property and of establishing the Park’s Management Committee, involving all key local actors and stakeholders. The report does not provide information on the timeframe and deadlines to finalize the updated Management Plan and to initiate its implementation. Information is also provided on the on-going efforts of the State Parties of Peru and Bolivia to develop the Vilcabamba-Amboro Corridor which includes Manu National Park. However, no further details are provided on activities implemented so far under this initiative, nor on the effectiveness of these efforts in enhancing the conservation and management of the property.

 

e) Oil concessions

IUCN notes that it has received reports of exploration for oil in a concession block adjacent to the property. While there is no oil exploitation allowed or scheduled within the property, IUCN has received reports that in the event of exploitation an oil pipeline would be built, which might traverse the property to unite with the Camisea pipeline. There are also other risks that should be taken into account regarding the property should oil exploitation proceed in adjacent areas. The World Heritage Centre and IUCN consider that an oil pipeline traversing the property would have adverse effects on its values and integrity and urge the State Party to exclude Manu National Park as a possible pipeline route, and to ensure that adjacent oil exploration and exploitation does not impact on the Outstanding Universal Value of the property, and to notify the World Heritage Centre of any such plans, as requested in Paragraph 172 of the Operational Guidelines.

 

f) Increasing coca plantations within the park

IUCN has received reports from that illegal coca plantations in or near the park boundary in the Kosnipata valley are increasing, which is of concern as it may affect the integrity of the property.

 

g) Planned road between Boca Manu and Boca Colorado

IUCN has received reports that the construction of a new road from Boca Manu to Boca Colorado has begun. The World Heritage Centre and IUCN are concerned about the adverse effects this road may have in the buffer zone of the property, including facilitation illegal logging and poaching, which may also indirectly adversely affect the property’s values. 

The World Heritage Centre and IUCN continue to receive reports of illegal activities affecting the conservation of the property, particularly from agricultural encroachment and illegal logging. Given the multiple localised threats currently affecting the property’s values, the World Heritage Centre and IUCN consider that a reactive monitoring mission is needed to evaluate the state of conservation of the property and determine the significance of these threats and appropriate responses. 

Analysis and Conclusions of the World Heritage Centre and IUCN

N/A

Decision Adopted: 34 COM 7B.36

The World Heritage Committee,

1. Having examined Document WHC-10/34.COM/7B,

2. Recalling Decision 32 COM 7B.39, adopted at its 33rd session (Seville, 2009),

3. Regrets that the State Party has not provided a more detailed report on the state of conservation of the property, including full details on the reported threats and any other potential threats directly and indirectly affecting the integrity of the property, along with management's response to these threats, as requested in Decision 32 COM 7B.39;

4. Reiterates its concern about continued reports of threats to the conservation and integrity of the property, including incidents of deforestation, agricultural encroachment, invasion and insecurity;

5. Expresses its concern about reports of oil exploration adjacent to the property and the possibility of an oil pipeline traversing the property, and strongly urges the State Party to exclude Manu National Park as a possible oil pipeline route and to consider the possible impacts of the oil exploration adjacent to the property on its Outstanding Universal Value;

6. Also expresses its concern about reports that the construction of a new road from Boca Manu to Boca Colorado outside the property's boundaries has begun, which may directly affect the property's buffer zone and indirectly affect its Outstanding Universal Value by facilitating illegal logging and poaching;

7. Requests the State Party to submit the Environmental Impact Assessments for the road from Boca Manu to Boca Colorado, as well as for any future oil exploration adjacent to the property, to the World Heritage Centre as soon as these are available;

8. Also requests the State Party to invite a joint World Heritage Centre/ IUCN reactive monitoring mission to assess the state of conservation of the property;

9. Further requests the State Party to submit to the World Heritage Centre, by 1 February 2011, a detailed report on the state of conservation of the property, for examination by the World Heritage Committee at its 35th session in 2011.