1.         Ruins of Kilwa Kisiwani and Ruins of Songo Mnara (United Republic of Tanzania) (C 144)

Year of inscription on the World Heritage List  1981

Criteria  (iii)

Year(s) of inscription on the List of World Heritage in Danger   2004-2014

Threats for which the property was inscribed on the List of World Heritage in Danger

Deterioration and decay leading to the collapse of the historical and archaeological structures for which the property was inscribed 

Desired state of conservation for the removal of the property from the List of World Heritage in Danger

The following desired state of conservation was adopted by the World Heritage Committee at its 32nd session (Quebec City , 2008):

a) Rehabilitation of at least 70% of the heritage monuments;

b) Surveyed and demarcated boundaries as well as the extension of the property to include Kilwa Kivinje and Sanje Ya Kati;

c) Established proper land-use plan;

d) Demonstrated progress in the implementation of the management and the conservation plan;

e) Fully established on-site administrative structures;

f) Halted sea-wave action.

Corrective measures identified

The following corrective measures were adopted by the World Heritage Committee at its 32nd session (Quebec City, 2008):

a) Implement urgent measures to halt sea-wave action;

b) Survey and demarcate the boundaries of the property including extension;

c) Improve and implement the management and conservation plans;

d) Provide for on-site management staff;

e) Halt the vegetation growth within and around monuments;

f) Halt of illegal removal of monuments’ stone for private constructions.

Timeframe for the implementation of the corrective measures

The following timeframe was adopted by the World Heritage Committee at its 32nd session (Quebec City, 2008):

a) Changes within two years:

Delineation of the boundaries of the property and buffer zones. This should also include the extension of the property to include Kilwa Kivinje and Sanje Ya Kati, the boundaries and the extension to be submitted for consideration by the 35th session of the World Heritage Committee;

b) Changes within three years:

(i) Implementation of the management plan should be advanced, and there should be signs of rehabilitation of architectural heritage;

(ii) Management structures should be well established in each serial site with an operational office and staff;

(iii) Establishment of a proper land-use plan to protect sites integrity and resolve future land conflicts;

c) Changes within five years:

Recovery of most of the architectural heritage should be completed (though full recovery will take much longer and will require sustained effort for over a decade).

Previous Committee Decisions  see page http://whc.unesco.org/en/list/144/documents/

International Assistance

Requests approved: 0 (from 1983-2009)
Total amount approved: USD 56,053
For details, see page http://whc.unesco.org/en/list/144/assistance/

UNESCO Extra-budgetary Funds

Total amount provided to the property: The Norwegian Funds-in-Trust provided support for UNESCO rehabilitation project (USD 201,390).

Previous monitoring missions

February 2004: ICOMOS mission; June 2008 and March 2009: Joint World Heritage Centre/ICOMOS reactive monitoring missions.

Factors affecting the property identified in previous reports

Illustrative material  see page http://whc.unesco.org/en/list/144/

Conservation issues presented to the World Heritage Committee in 2010

On 25 February 2010, a report on the state of conservation of the Ruins of Kilwa Kisiwani and Ruins of Songo Mnara was submitted by the State Party. The report directly addressed the issues outlined in the Decision 33 COM 7A.14 of the World Heritage Committee at its 33rdsession in Seville, 2009.

The State Party’s report indicates that, by means of an experts workshop in July 2009 supported by the African World Heritage Fund, it has developed a Three Year Strategic Plan to implement the corrective measures. Progress to date includes:

a) Staff numbers at the site have been increased to nine by the addition of two senior conservation technicians;

b) The Government of Japan through the Japan Overseas Cooperation Volunteers has been requested to provide two volunteers to assist the site manager with fund raising, land use planning, and strategies to alleviate coastal erosion. It is expected that the latter will involve environment protection programs to be implemented at district, village and site levels;

c) Regular meetings at district and site levels to create awareness of the required measures.

The State Party also reports on ongoing conservation works at the Gereza (Fort), the Malindi mosque and cemetery at Kilwa Kisiwani thanks to financial assistance from the World Monuments Fund and the United Nations Joint Fund Programme 1. These include stabilisation and consolidation works at the Gereza and sea wall, and restoration of the arched gateway. Reconstruction of the collapsed wall protecting the Royal burial places at Songo Mnara was funded by the State Party and the World Heritage Fund through an International Assistance.

In addition, the State Party announced its plan to construct a site museum and staff offices at Kilwa Kisiwani. It is proposed to locate the building away from the monuments to avoid visual intrusion or adverse impact on the Outstanding Universal Value of the property. Architectural and other information on the proposal will be provided to the World Heritage Centre and the Advisory Bodies for comments and advice before implementation.

However, no information has been provided by the State Party on demarcation of the boundaries, percentage of the conserved structures or control of vegetation growth on the monuments.

The World Heritage Centre and the Advisory Bodies acknowledge the progress made with some of the required corrective measures and commends the State Party on the development of a three year strategy for the implementation of the corrective measures. They consider that it would be helpful for this plan, together with resource implications and the management structure associated with it, to be submitted to the World Heritage Centre for review by the Advisory Bodies. 

The World Heritage Centre and the Advisory Bodies note that visitor centres are proposed for Kilwa Kisiwani, Songo Mnara and Kilwa Kivinje in the Management Plan in line with the proposed interpretation of the property, as well as the information centre originally planned at Kilwa Masoko, however consider that the State Party should give the utmost priority to the implementation of the corrective measures in order to achieve the Desired state of conservation. 

Analysis and Conclusions of the World Heritage Centre, ICOMOS and ICCROM

N/A

Decision Adopted: 34 COM 7A.16

The World Heritage Committee,

1. Having examined Document WHC-10/34.COM/7A,

2. Recalling Decision 33 COM 7A.14, adopted at its 33rd session (Seville, 2009),

3. Commends the State Party for putting in place a three year strategy to implement the corrective measures and requests the State Party to provide details of this strategy, the resources needed to implement it, and the management arrangements for its implementation, to the World Heritage Centre as early as possible for review by the Advisory Bodies;

4. Acknowledges the information provided by the State Party on the actions being taken to implement some of the corrective measures, and requests the State Party to continue its work on all the corrective measures identified previously, according to the established priorities, including the establishment of a proper land-use plan to protect the property's integrity and resolve future land conflicts, the delineation of boundaries, the conservation of the architectural structures, the mitigation of sea wave erosion and the control of vegetation;

5. Reminds the State Party of the requirement for the delineation of the boundaries of the property and the buffer zones;

6. Underlines the importance to foresee the participation of the local population in the activities developed for visitors;

7. Further requests the State Party to submit to the World Heritage Centre by 1 February 2011, an updated report on the state of conservation of the property and the implementation of the above for examination by the World Heritage Committee at its 35th session in 2011;

8. Decides to retain the Ruins of Kilwa Kisiwani and Ruins of Songo Mnara (United Republic of Tanzania) on the List of World Heritage in Danger.

Decision Adopted: 34 COM 8C.2

The World Heritage Committee,

1. Following the examination of the state of conservation reports of properties inscribed on the List of World Heritage in Danger (WHC-10/34.COM/7A, WHC-10/34.COM/7A.Add and WHC-10/34.COM/7A.Add.2),

2. Decides to retain the following properties on the List of World Heritage in Danger: