Year of inscription on the World Heritage List
Virunga National Park: 1979
Virunga National Park: (vii)(viii)(x)
Previous Committee Decisions:
See page http://whc.unesco.org/en/list/475
See page http://whc.unesco.org/en/list/475
Year(s) of inscription on the List of World Heritage in Danger
Threats for which the property was inscribed on the List of World Heritage in Danger Virunga National Park was inscribed on the List of World Heritage in Danger at the 18th Session of the World Heritage Committee (1994) in the wake of the war in neighbouring Rwanda and the subsequent massive influx of refugees from that country which led to massive deforestation and poaching at the site. Many members of the Park staff had not been remunerated for almost a year. Poaching of wildlife has continued and the staff lacks the means of patrolling the Park's 650 km long boundary. The human population in the fishing village near Lake Edward has increased several fold, posing a serious threat to the integrity of the Park. The fuel wood requirements of almost one million refugees camping inside the Park is estimated at 600 metric tons/day and is leading to widespread depletion of forests in the lowlands.
Threats for which the property was inscribed on the List of World Heritage in Danger
Virunga National Park was inscribed on the List of World Heritage in Danger at the 18th Session of the World Heritage Committee (1994) in the wake of the war in neighbouring Rwanda and the subsequent massive influx of refugees from that country which led to massive deforestation and poaching at the site.
Many members of the Park staff had not been remunerated for almost a year.
Poaching of wildlife has continued and the staff lacks the means of patrolling the Park's 650 km long boundary.
The human population in the fishing village near Lake Edward has increased several fold, posing a serious threat to the integrity of the Park.
The fuel wood requirements of almost one million refugees camping inside the Park is estimated at 600 metric tons/day and is leading to widespread depletion of forests in the lowlands.
Desired state of conservation for the removal of the property from the List of World Heritage in Danger
Corrective measures identified
The following corrective measures have been identified by the 2006 World Heritage Centre mission and adopted by the World Heritage Committee at its 30th session (Vilnius, 2006):
a) Establish a « Committee to Save Virunga » (CSV) which will help address the threats to the property;
b) Reduce significantly the number of military positions inside the property, and ensure a close follow up of illegal activity by military personnel;
c) Immediate closure and removal of the Nyaleke army reunification and training camp, as decided by the Minister of Defence;
d) Continue the efforts to evacuate in a peaceful and integrated way all illegal occupants in the property, accompanied by appropriate measures to assist the reintegration of the populations in their region of origin;
e) Strengthen cooperation between the managing body of the Park, ICCN, and its partners by developing a joint plan for all interventions in the Park, with clear responsibilities and an implementation plan;
f) Develop a strategy to share any profits, such as from tourism related to gorillas, with the local communities in order to improve relations;
g) Strengthen law enforcement in the property, concentrating on priority areas and remotivating Park staff. Also propose specialised training of staff to improve efficiency.
h) Establish a trust fund for the rehabilitation of the World Heritage properties of the Democratic Republic of the Congo (DRC).
The reinforced monitoring mission of August 2007 reaffirmed the importance of points b) and f) identified in the additional urgent actions adopted by the World Heritage Committee at its 32nd session (Quebec, 2008):
i) Halt all charcoal production within the property and promote alternative sources of energy;
j) Strengthen the role of the United Nations Organization Mission in the Congo (MONUC) to establish security in the property and its periphery;
k) Strengthen communication and awareness raising activities targeted at the competent authorities and local populations.
Requests Approved: 0
Total Amount Approved: 268,560USD
|2005||Preparation of transboundary nomination for the Virunga ecosystem (Uganda, DRC, Rwanda)||30,000 USD|
|2000||Emergency assistance to World Natural Heritage of the democratic Republic of the Congo||26,400 USD|
|1999||Support to Resident Staff of Garamba, Virunga, Kahuzi Biega National Parks and Okapi Faunal Reserve - the four World Heritage sites in Danger in the Democratic Republic of the Congo||35,000 USD|
|1996||Request for Technical Assistance for Virunga National Park, World Heritage in Danger List||0 USD|
|1994||Financial contribution for the protection of Kahuzi-Biega National Park and Virunga National Park||25,000 USD|
|1993||Financial contribution for the purchase of equipment for Virunga National Park||20,000 USD|
|1992||Review of the state of conservation of World Heritage sites in Zaire and preparation of proposals for elaborating management plans for them||3,750 USD|
|1991||Purchase of a motor boat and of spare parts for motor boats for Virunga National Park||40,000 USD|
|1990||Training of 2 specialists each from Salonga and Virunga National Parks on boat repair and maintenance work, Kinshasa, Zaire||4,750 USD|
|1988||Equipment to improve protective measures in Virunga National Park||40,000 USD|
|1980||Assistance for Virunga National Park (equipment and consultant mission)||43,660 USD|
UNESCO Extra-budgetary Funds
Total amount provided to the property: Conservation Programme for RDC World Heritage properties (“DRC Programme”) funded by the UNF, Italy, Spain and Belgium. Phase I (2001–2005): approximately USD 900,000, phase II (2005-2009) : USD 300,000 , phase III (2010-2012): USD 300,000.
In January 2007 financial support (USD 30,000) granted by the Rapid Response Facility. 90,000 USD was also provided in support of the project to develop alternative energy sources to charcoal (funded by the French speaking Community of Belgium).
Previous monitoring missions
1996 and 2006: World Heritage Centre monitoring missions; 2007: World Heritage Centre/IUCN reinforced monitoring mission. Several World Heritage Centre missions in the framework of the DRC Programme.
|2007||Mission conjointe UNESCO/UICN au Parc national des Virunga,(République démocratique du Congo) (N 63), 11 – 21 Août 2007|
Factors affecting the property identified in previous reports
a) Armed conflict, insecurity and political instability;
b) Poaching by armed military groups;
d) Extension of illegal fishing areas;
e) Deforestation and cattle grazing.
Current conservation issues
On 8 February 2010, a report on the state of conservation of the property was submitted by the State Party. This report contained some information on progress achieved in the implementation of the corrective measures. On the sidelines of a mission to Goma in February 2009, a World Heritage Centre staff member visited the park, held discussions with park staff and made a flight over different sectors of the park.
Since the 33rd session of the World Heritage Committee, the security situation around the park has improved. Following the joint military operation of the Congolese army (FARDC – Forces Armées de la RDC) and the Rwandan army (RDF – Rwandan Defense Force) in January 2009, militia of Forces Démocratiques pour la Libération du Rwanda (FDLR), a rebel group opposing the Rwanda Government, were pushed out of many of their strategic positions in and around the park. A major camp of the Congolese rebel group Mai-Mai on the southern shore of Lake Edward was also dismantled. As an immediate result, park guards were able to regain control over all park stations and are currently operating in most parts of the park. Park staff was able to secure the strategic gorilla sector around Mikeno, and numbers of gorillas in the habituated families have increased from 71 to 81 in the last 16 months. Gorilla tourism is slowly starting again. In 2009, 600 tourism visits were registered. Efforts are underway to rehabilitate key park infrastructure with support from various donors. Park staff also organized several large operations in the southern sector to combat deforestation and charcoal production. As a result, the eastern side of the Nyaragongo volcano is now secure, but FDLR are still active and engaged in deforestation and charcoal production on its western side and towards the Nyamulagira volcano. Pockets of FDLR and Mai-Mai also remain on the eastern shore of Lake Edward, and around the Kasali hills. The report also mentions that three guards were killed while on service since the last session.
In January a new eruption of the Nyamulagira volcano occurred from a new volcanic cone and the lava stream destroyed several hectares of forest on its southern flanks. The World Heritage Centre and IUCN note that this is not only a natural phenomena, but also that the active volcanism in the Virungas is one of the main justifications of the inscription of the property under criterion (viii).
The following progress can be noted in the implementation of the corrective measures:
a) Create a «Committee to Save Virunga » (CSV) to help address the threats to the property
As indicated in the previous report, the CSV has been operational since 2007, following the killings of gorilla. Apparently, it is no longer active at the moment, though the park direction has regular contact with the politico-administrative and military authorities to discuss issues related to the conservation of the property.
b) Reduce significantly the number of military positions inside the property and ensure a close follow up of illegal activity by military personnel
As a result of the fighting in and around the park in 2008, there are again many military positions active inside the park. While the State Party report notes that the numbers of military stationed in the park is again diminishing recently, an important military presence was noted during the flight over the park in February. Especially in the Rwindi sector, many large military camps are present, some occupying formal rebel positions like the Mai-mai camp on the southern shore of Lake Edward. There are also reports of the growing involvement of the military personnel based at these camps in illegal resource exploitation, such as new illegal fisheries on Lake Edward, poaching and charcoal making. The World Heritage Centre received a report from the protected area authority mentioning the involvement of the military in charcoal activities in the southern, central and eastern sectors of the park as well as the killing of two elephants by the military in Tonga in March 2010. A further report was received from a local NGO, in which the implication of military of the 18th and 15th brigade, both based in the park, is documented. For February 2010, the report documents the killing of seven hippopotamus, four elephants, two chimpanzees and four baboons on the southern shores of Lake Edward. This is a clear indication of the seriousness of this problem, as surely not all cases were documented. The problem has been confirmed to the World Heritage Centre by the management authority ICCN.
c) Immediate closure and removal of the Nyaleke training and reunification camp, as decided by the Minister of Defense
No progress has been achieved with regard to this issue and the camp is still operational. However, the State Party report mentions that the number of military personnel present in the camp has diminished.
d) Continue the efforts to evacuate in a peaceful and integrated manner all illegal occupants in the property, accompanied by appropriate measures to assist the reintegration of the populations in their region of origin
The State Party report mentions that efforts to evacuate the Lubiliya sector are underway. This is a 200 ha encroachment in the Kasindi area which has been occupied progressively since 2002. A 150 ha re-settlement area has been identified. These efforts are supported through the UNESCO DRC programme with the support of the Government of Belgium.
Unfortunately, no progress was made in the evacuation of the Kirolirwe region and the western shore of Lake Edward. In the Lake Edward region, 500 families were relocated in 2008, but unfortunately the evacuation process had to be interrupted as a result of the renewed armed conflict in the region in October 2008. So far, the security and political situation has not yet allowed resuming the process. The area was over flown during the February visit which showed that the entire shoreline is now under agricultural use, with large illegal settlements. People who originally moved into the area to set up illegal fishing camps on the shores are apparently progressively turning to agriculture as a result of dwindling fish stocks. The agricultural front is steadily progressing to the south and currently forest areas to the south of the shoreline corridor are being decimated. The World Heritage Centre and IUCN believe that urgent action is needed to halt this progression. FARDC military are said to be involved in both the charcoal and fisheries business. Several new fishing camps were also noticed on the southern shores and it can be feared that if no action is undertaken to halt this, a similar process as on the western shore could happen. A recent report from the management authority mentions a large scale patrol in March 2010 in this area by the park guards together with the military to address this issue.
e) Strengthen cooperation between the managing body of the Park (ICCN) and its partners by developing a joint plan for all the interventions within the Park, with clear responsibilities and an implementation plan
The Park Direction, which has been re-established at the Rumangabo station on the edge of the park, is ensuring the coordination of all park activities. All park stations now have mobile phone coverage and are in regular contact with the Direction. The PNVi Direction has, further, developed a « VirungaNational Park Annual Plan» together with an operational plan for each of the sectors of the property. The planning of all conservation activities of the property continues to be carried out jointly, through the Coordination Committee of the Site (CoCoSi).
The State Party report also mentions that a new management plan is under preparation and should be finalized this year.
f) Develop a strategy to share any profits, such as from tourism related to gorillas, with the local communities in order to improve relations
Thirty percent of the income received through gorilla tourism is re-distributed to the local communities to fund social projects such as school construction and to cover running costs of the health centers. A new school and health centre were created at the park headquarters in Rumangabo, partly with donor assistance, but also using some of the tourism receipt. The facilities are accessible to both park staff and the local communities. This initiatve generated a strong support from the local communities.
g) Strengthen law enforcement in the property concentrating on priority areas and remotivate Park staff
With the improvement of the security situation, important efforts were made to restart park surveillance activities. An external security advisor was recruited who is advising the park management on security issues and law enforcement operations. First priority was given to the gorilla (Mikeno) sector, which is now under control of park staff. Currently efforts are undertaken to regain control over the Nyaragongo volcano, targeting the illegal charcoal production. Some large patrols were also undertaken on the southern shore of Lake Edward. While these actions are very encouraging, serious challenges remain. A particular challenge is the important presence of military in the park, which are engaging in illegal activities, directly or indirectly by providing “authorizations” to people engaged in these activities.
Another important step to strengthen law enforcement is the on-going overall assessment of park staff as part of the institutional reform process. Through this process, it will be possible to retire old staff and at the same time recruit new staff, improve staff training as well as their social conditions.
h) Create a trust fund for the rehabilitation of the World Heritage properties of the Democratic Republic of the Congo
See the report on Kahuzi-BiegaNational Park (Document WHC-10/34.COM/7A)
i) Halt all charcoal production within the property and promote alternative sources of energy
Significant efforts were undertaken to curb the illegal charcoal production. Charcoal production was halted in the gorilla sector and on the eastern slopes of the Nyaragongo volcano. In 2009, more than 750 patrols were organized in these areas and a total of 840 charcoal ovens destroyed. Nevertheless, deforestation for charcoal production remains one of the serious threats to the integrity of the site. During the fly over in February, a lot of camps of charcoal producers were spotted between Nyaragongo and Nyamulagira volcanoes. Some camps seemed semi-permanent with small shelters with iron roofs.
The park management continues its programme for the production of biomass briquettes with the aim of encouraging this technology as an alternative energy to charcoal from the property. So far 550 small enterprises have been created around the park producing briquettes made of non-woody biomass. A publicity campaign is underway in the city of Goma to sensitize people to replace charcoal with this alternative fuel. This initiative has received support from the World Heritage Centre, with funding from the French speaking Community of Belgium. WWF is also continuing reforestation activities around the property.
j) Strengthen the role of the United Nations Organization Mission in the Congo (MONUC) to establish security in the property and its periphery
The UN Mission to DRC, MONUC, has been facilitating aerial surveillance of the site through regular reconnaissance flights by helicopter. In addition, mixed ICCN-MONUC patrols were sporadically organized. MONUC also intervened to ensure the security at the Rumangabo station and to provide some training to park guards in weapons maintenance.
The park management authority also started an initiative to collect arms in the villages around the property in exchange for iron roofing. So far five weapons were collected. An arms collection project is also being implemented by a local NGO. In addition, the park is trying to motivate some of the remaining Mai-Mai rebels to re-integrate into the regular army, with the help of a traditional chief.
k) Strengthen communication and awareness raising activities targeted at the competent authorities and local populations
The park is providing support to social infrastructure, and the implementation of the briquette programme, which has led to job creation around the park. As a result, support for the park amongst local communities is increasing.
Unfortunately, relations with the military and provincial authorities have recently become more challenging. In spite of the different meetings held with the commander of the military region, there is continued involvement of the FARDC, including several commanders, in the different illegal resource activities. Recently, the provincial government also “legalized” some of the illegal fisheries on Lake Edward and announced the degazettement of the hunting area of Rutshuru, a buffer zone to the park. These decisions are in clear violation of the national legislation governing the protected areas..
The State Party report did not provide further information on the issue of the oil prospecting projects overlapping with the property. An ICCN senior staff confirmed to the World Heritage Centre that so far the exploration permit which was granted by the Minister for Energy had not yet been ratified by the President. The website of Dominion Oil, one of the two companies involved, notes that the contract was already approved by the Parliament and that the Presidential ratification is pending. It also mentions the “challenging operational environment, with the ongoing regional instability and the status of the area as UNESCO World Heritage site”. It needs to be noted that the same company also holds an exploration permit situated largely within the Selous Game Reserve and World Heritage property. The World Heritage Centre and IUCN reiterate that oil exploration or exploitation activities are incompatible with the World Heritage status, in line with previous Decisions of the Committee.
The World Heritage Centre and IUCN note the important efforts that have been undertaken by the park management authority since the last session, in particular to restart park surveillance activities, re-habilitate and re-occupy the different park stations and address the illegal charcoal production. Nevertheless, the conservation of the property continues to face important challenges. In particular the involvement of elements of the Congolese military FARDC in illegal resource exploitation activities and the recent actions taken by the provincial authorities are extremely worrying. The World Heritage Centre and IUCN also remain very concerned by the issue of the potential oil exploration. It seems clear that in order to make further progress on the restoration of the values and integrity of the property, it is important for the State Party to ensure a clear political commitment to the conservation of the property, both at national and at provincial level. The high-level meeting requested by the Committee at its 31 session (Christchurch, 2007) therefore remains very relevant and important. In view of the current situation at the property, the World Heritage Centre and IUCN recommend the continued application of the reinforced monitoring mechanism and to maintain the property on the List of World Heritage in Danger.
Decision Adopted: 34COM 7A.32
The World Heritage Committee,
1. Having examined Document WHC-10/34.COM/7A.Add,
2. Recalling Decision 33 COM 7A.31, adopted at its 33rd session (Seville, 2009),
3. Expresses its utmost concern about the consistent reports from all the properties concerning involvement of elements of the Congolese Army in illegal exploitation of their natural resources and the lack of progress on a number of significant threats to the different sites, including the attribution of mining exploration and exploitation concessions and oil exploration concessions in the properties, the relocation of the Nyaleke army camp, and the measures required to address illegal occupation of the Kahuzi-Biega corridor;
4. Considers that these issues should be addressed through a comprehensive approach involving the different relevant Ministries and should be discussed at the high level meeting requested by the World Heritage Committee at its 31st session (Christchurch, 2007);
5. Notes the proposal made by the Minister of the Environment to organize the high level meeting before the Conference commemorating the Yaoundé Declaration planned towards the end of the year and urges the State Party to set a definite date for this meeting as soon as possible, in consultation with the Office of the Director General of UNESCO, the Chairperson of the World Heritage Committee and the President of IUCN;
6. Welcomes the continued commitment of the United Nations Organization Stabilization Mission in DRC (MONUSCO) in the and the financial support provided by numerous donors to the conservation of the properties and in particular the new contributions by Belgium and Spain to the third phase of the World Heritage Biodiversity Programme in Democratic Republic of Congo;
7. Also recalls its request to all States Parties to the World Heritage Convention to raise international awareness and promote the implementation of the recommendations of the World Heritage Committee.
Decision Adopted: 34COM 7A.4
The World Heritage Committee,
1. Having examined Document WHC-10/34.COM/7A,
2. Recalling Decision 33 COM 7A.4, adopted at its 33rd session (Seville, 2009),
3. Expresses its sincere condolences to the families of the three guards killed during protection operations at the property since its previous session;
4. Welcomes the efforts of the management authority, following the improvement of the security situation, to re-start law enforcement activities in priority areas, rehabilitate and re-occupy the different park stations as well as the actions taken to start addressing the illegal charcoal production in the park;
5. Acknowledges the steps taken by the State Party, which lead to an increased population of gorillas in the park and the resuming of tourism;
6. Expresses its deep concern with regard to the reported increasing involvement of elements of the Congolese army in the illegal exploitation of the natural resources of the property, in particular poaching, illegal fisheries and charcoal production, and urges the State Party to take the necessary action to address this issue;
7. Reiterates its concern with regard to the envisaged oil prospecting projects overlapping the property, recalls its position regarding the incompatibility of oil exploration and exploitation in respect of World Heritage status, and also urges the State Party not to authorize any project of prospection or oil exploitation.
8. Takes note of the important challenges which remain to allow for the restoration of the Outstanding Universal Value of the property and further urges the national and regional authorities to provide the necessary support to the management authority to address these challenges;
9. Requests the State Party to continue to implement the corrective measures adopted by the World Heritage Committee following the 2006 monitoring mission and the 2007 reinforced monitoring mission and calls upon the donor community to continue its financial support for these actions;
10. Further requests the State Party to invite a joint World Heritage Centre/IUCN reactive monitoring mission to evaluate the state of conservation of the property and progress achieved in the implementation of the corrective measures, for the establishment of a Desired State of Conservation for the removal of the property from the List of World Heritage in Danger, updating the necessary corrective measures and the timetable for their implementation;
11. Proposes that the High Level Meeting be held as soon as possible with the World Heritage Centre and IUCN;
12. Also requests the State Party to submit to the World Heritage Centre, by 1 February 2011, a report on the state of conservation of the property, including information on proposed oil exploration and exploitation projects overlapping the property, on the reduction of military positions inside the property, on appropriate measures taken to facilitate the relocation of occupants to appropriate zones, and on the status of flagship species in the property as well as progress accomplished in the implementation of the corrective measures, for examination by the World Heritage Committee at its 35th session in 2011;
13. Decides to continue to apply the Reinforced Monitoring Mechanism to the property;
14. Also decides to maintain Virunga National Park (Democratic Republic of the Congo) on the List of World Heritage in Danger.
Decision Adopted: 34COM 8C.2
The World Heritage Committee,
1. Following the examination of the state of conservation reports of properties inscribed on the List of World Heritage in Danger (WHC-10/34.COM/7A, WHC-10/34.COM/7A.Add and WHC-10/34.COM/7A.Add.2),
2. Decides to retain the following properties on the List of World Heritage in Danger: