1.         Historical Centre of the City of Arequipa (Peru) (C 1016)

Year of inscription on the World Heritage List  2000

Criteria  (i)(iv)

Year(s) of inscription on the List of World Heritage in Danger  N/A

Previous Committee Decisions  see page http://whc.unesco.org/en/list/1016/documents/

International Assistance

Requests approved: 0 (from 2001-2001)
Total amount approved: USD 75,000
For details, see page http://whc.unesco.org/en/list/1016/assistance/

UNESCO Extra-budgetary Funds


Previous monitoring missions

February 2000: ICOMOS Expert Mission; April/May 2008: World Heritage Centre/ICOMOS joint reactive monitoring mission

Factors affecting the property identified in previous reports

a) Lack of a Disaster Preparedness Plan;

b) Ongoing planned development projects which impact the Historic Centre, such as the planned construction of the Chilina Bridge;

c) Illegal demolitions involving historical buildings;

d) Urban sprawl.

Illustrative material  see page http://whc.unesco.org/en/list/1016/

Conservation issues presented to the World Heritage Committee in 2011

The State Party submitted a report on the state of conservation of the property on 2 February 2011, in response to the decisions adopted by the World Heritage Committee at its 34th session (Brasilia, 2010).

a) Chilina Valley prehispanic terraces and Chilina Bridge

The report indicates that the Ministry of Culture is preparing the delimitation and its related report (with field verification in process), for the farming terraces of Lari Lari and Los Tucos, so as to list them as national cultural heritage. This nomination is a necessary action to protect Chilina Valley, the connection between the city and the countryside of Arequipa. No indication was provided on when this process will be concluded.

Regarding the construction of the Chilina Bridge and the Via Troncal Interconectora, the State Party indicates that no works have been carried out. On 14 October 2010, the Arequipa Regional Government submitted the revised version of the Chilina Bridge and the Via Troncal Interconectora project, including the observations made throughout the various reviews by the Technical Committee. The proposal was rejected by the World Heritage Committee which noted that the design could impact the terraced and Yanahuara monument areas, among other observations. According to the report, a new revision of the proposal was submitted based on the objections made, including a lighter design for the bridge. This new proposal has been included in the state of conservation report and is currently with ICOMOS for revision. It was indicated that the Architectural Regional Technical Committee has to evaluate the project; however no clear indication was submitted on when this will be completed. According to media reports, the construction of the Chilina Bridge will start in April 2011.

Reports on the evaluation of the impact of the bridge in relation to cultural heritage and a new Environmental Impact Assessment (EIA) carried out in 2010 have been included. The EIA focuses only on the potential impacts of the Chilina Bridge and provides it a positive review. It includes a comprehensive action plan on how to mitigate the potential impacts that could arise during construction. However, no information or EIA has been submitted on the potential impacts of the components that pertain to the connection roads (Via Troncal Interconectora). They remain as a matter of concern as they can potentially impact the cultural and natural landscape of the terrace areas which have yet to be declared as national cultural heritage. The road would now border the terraces, however no provisions have been made as to how to mitigate potential impacts or prevent urban sprawl and uncontrolled development once communication ways are readily available. The impacts of the Chillina Bridge and the Via Troncal Interconectora should also take into account the new de-limitations of the property and its buffer zone prepared by the State Party, which will need to be adopted by the World Heritage Committee within the framework of the Restrospective Inventory and the Periodic Reporting Exercise.

b) Management and regulations

The State Party indicates that the Provincial Municipal Government of Arequipa is currently in the process of redesigning the Urban Development Plan. As of 2010, a Multisectorial Consultative Commission has been established for the process, and the assessment phase has now been concluded. The Master Plan for the Historic Centre is being updated including provisions for the Urban Development Plan. It was indicated that the demarcation of boundaries launched in July 2010, and the inventory of heritage properties, need to be finalized and approved prior to the final update of the Plan. A map with the new de-limitation of the property (property and buffer zone) has been included. The current status of the definition of limits is not clear, nor have the proposed boundaries and buffer zone been officially submitted to the World Heritage Centre and the Advisory Bodies for review. With regards to the heritage inventory, the report indicates that the first stage of the process that began in 2010 has been completed, while the second stage has 35% completion. The report includes a sample of the inventory sheet and will serve to update the property’s cadastre. According to the submitted chronogram of activities the project has an eight months schedule and should be finalized by the end of 2011.

Co-operation between the various agencies continues to develop and is mandated through different Municipal agreements. The report indicates that the revised Management Plan will include the creation of a single regulatory body, which would incorporate citizen representation and bodies in charge of the property. A proposal, which was included in the report, has been made “Regulatory Framework for Arequipa’s Historical Centre and Monument Area” which includes regulations for the conservation, protection and management of the property. No further data is provided on whether it has been approved or is currently in force.

The Risk Management Plan included with the report is currently being assessed to become a Municipal Ordinance, although it is not clear when this will be accomplished. It includes maps identifying risk areas, an assessment of threats derived from anthropogenic factors including changes in land use, inadequate interventions as well as vulnerabilities from the social perspective, and provides proposals to mitigate these factors. However, no precise assessment or actions have been developed on how to address natural threats and vulnerabilities, the measures to mitigate effects and the actions to undertake in case of an emergency. It is largely focused on social threats, but completely lacks the natural component which is critical, particularly at a property with a long history of seismic events and vulnerability derived from volcanic activity.

c) Interventions on built heritage

The State Party reports that demolitions and deterioration of built heritage has been controlled and additional properties were declared historical monuments. Actions undertaken include interventions at historic convents, urban renewal projects, capacity building and awareness raising activities. Changes in construction regulations have been included and new sanctions have been proposed for neglected or demolished buildings.

Analysis and Conclusions of the World Heritage Centre, ICOMOS and ICCROM

The World Heritage Centre and the Advisory Bodies acknowledge the progress made by the State Party in addressing conservation concerns at the property. However, they note the limited progress that has been achieved on matters such as the heritage inventory, the final delimitation of boundaries and buffer zone for the property and the definition and enforcement of regulatory measures to ensure their integrity and authenticity. Although they recognize that better decision-making mechanisms are currently in place, they reiterate the importance of securing the means for full formal operation including the passing and enforcement of the proposed regulatory framework. Also of crucial importance will be the final declaration of the Chilina Valley and the associated terraces and archaeological sites as cultural heritage which will enhance the protection of the area. They also take note of the threats derived from the potential construction of the Via Troncal Interconectora and the impacts of the construction of the Chilina Bridge.

Decision Adopted: 35 COM 7B.132

The World Heritage Committee,

1. Having examined Document WHC-11/35.COM/7B,

2. Recalling Decision 34 COM 7B.114, adopted at its 34th session (Brasilia, 2010),

3. Acknowledges the information provided by the State Party on the efforts made to ensure the conservation of the property, and encourages it to continue with this work in co-operation with the World Heritage Centre and the Advisory Bodies;

4. Notes the submission of the risk preparedness plan, however expresses its concern that the developed plan does not include provisions to address threats and vulnerabilities derived from natural factors, and urges the State Party to develop this component and to submit three printed and electronic copies to the World Heritage Centre and the Advisory Bodies for review by 1 February 2012;

5. Requests the State Party to undertake the following activities as indicated by the 2008 World Heritage Centre / ICOMOS joint reactive monitoring mission:

a) Finalize the heritage inventory,

b) Finalize the delimitation of the property and the establishment of the buffer zone and submit the proposed new boundaries, including appropriate cartography and legal framework, for examination by the World Heritage Committee,

c) Conclude the declaration of the Chilina Valley and the associated terraces and archaeological sites as national cultural heritage to ensure their adequate protection,

d) Carry out an Environmental Impact Assessment for the Via Troncal Interconectora project as a whole, including the assessment and potential mitigation measures for the landscape areas of Lari Lari, Los Tucos, Cayma and Yanahuara, and submit the assessment for review by the World Heritage Centre and the Advisory Bodies prior to the approval and implementation of the project,

e) Submit the evaluation of the Architectural Regional Technical Committee on the new proposals for the Chilina Bridge, in conformity with Paragraph 172 of the Operational Guidelines, for consideration and review by the World Heritage Centre and the Advisory Bodies prior to the approval and construction of the project,

f) Finalize the approval process for the proposed "Regulatory Framework for Arequipa's Historical Centre and Monuments Area";

6. Also requests the State Party to submit to the World Heritage Centre, by 1 February 2012, an updated report on the state of conservation of the property and the implementation of the above, for examination by the World Heritage Committee at its 36th session in 2012.