Year of inscription on the World Heritage List
Old and New Towns of Edinburgh: 1995
Old and New Towns of Edinburgh: (ii)(iv)
Previous Committee Decisions:
See page http://whc.unesco.org/en/list/475
See page http://whc.unesco.org/en/list/475
Year(s) of inscription on the List of World Heritage in Danger
Desired state of conservation for the removal of the property from the List of World Heritage in Danger
Corrective measures identified
Requests Approved: 0
Total Amount Approved: 0USD
UNESCO Extra-budgetary Funds
Previous monitoring missions
November 2008: joint World Heritage Centre / ICOMOS reactive monitoring mission
Factors affecting the property identified in previous reports
a) Major development projects;
b) Traffic regulations.
Current conservation issues
On 1 February 2011, the State Party submitted a report on the state of conservation describing the current situation of development projects, providing an overview of the implementation of measures requested by the World Heritage Committee and explaining the reasons for not establishing a buffer zone as requested by the World Heritage Committee in 2009.
a) Development projects
Caltongate: The lead developer of this project had gone into receivership in 2009 and discussions regarding the purchase of the creditor’s ownership are under way. The State Party expects that the potential purchaser will consider using the existing planning consent.
Haymarket: Further to a public local Inquiry held in 2009 a planning consent was not granted due to the impact of the tallest element of the scheme, a hotel, on the wider city. The State Party also reported that a revised development has been recently granted planning permission and that the 17-storey hotel has been redesigned as a 6-storey office building.
St James Centre: According to the 2008 reactive monitoring mission report this 1970s shopping centre is a visual barrier and its demolition will enable a new vision for the area. The State Party reports that due to economic circumstances the replacement of the building has been delayed. The report also informs that the outline planning permission for the replacement was approved in June 2009 and that the detailed planning application is expected to be presented over the next two years.
b) Buffer Zone
The State Party reports that the establishment of a buffer zone has been included in the current review of the Management Plan, but the work undertaken by Edinburgh World Heritage (EWH) concluded that a buffer zone would not necessarily provide effective protection of the site’s Outstanding Universal Value (OUV), especially because adequate layers of protection already exist. According to the report, the implementation of the “Guidance on the Protection of Key Views” and the existing statutory protection would provide a more efficient and responsive mechanism to protect the OUV of the property.
Considering that 40 conservation areas have been recognized by the City of Edinburgh Council and that they cover not only the World Heritage property but nearly all adjacent land, the World Heritage Centre and the Advisory Bodies consider that the State Party should study the feasibility of integrating them under a buffer zone scheme to develop a more effective protection.
c) Policies in relation to height controls
The State Party informs that the “Guidance on the Protection of Key Views” was adopted by the City of Edinburgh Council in June 2008. The report also informs that the Edinburgh City Local Plan, adopted on 28 January 2010, includes a policy on tall buildings which establishes a presumption against new buildings that are visibly higher than their neighbours. Proposals for development that would be conspicuous in wider views of the city will be subject to special scrutiny.
The State Party reports that the management plan, which is currently under revision, includes measures to increase the understanding of the OUV. The report also provides information about the consultations on the management plan held in 2010, with two workshops and written responses from a range of stakeholders. While the World Heritage Centre and the Advisory Bodies recognize that a participatory framework has been developed for the revision of the management plan, they expect that specific awareness-raising strategies about the OUV would be developed as part of the revised management plan.
e) Edinburgh Tram
The report informs that the detailed elements of the project are subject to planning consents and that an agreement concerning the details of associated infrastructure has not been reached yet. In reply to concerns raised by citizens of Edinburgh concerning displacement of general traffic to some residential and historic streets, the State Party has informed the World Heritage Centre that this situation is part of the reconfiguration of traffic flows in relation to works for the tram system and subsequent road closures. The World Heritage Centre and the Advisory Bodies consider that the State Party should carefully consider whether these traffic displacements may negatively affect the OUV of the property and undertake impact studies to that effect.
f) Other issues
The State Party also informs about other development projects:
Leith Docks: Works have not yet begun.
South Bridge Fire Site: Planning consents are in place for a mixed-use development and according to the report will not have any adverse impact on the OUV of the property.
Princes Street: The project is currently being developed. The 2008 reactive monitoring mission did not raise any major concern about this project.
Royal High School: Edinburgh City Council has identified a development partner to take on the re-use of the building. A planning workshop in 2011, with all key planning stakeholders, will assess the development potential of the building.
The World Heritage Centre and the Advisory Bodies consider that the State Party has made good progress in the implementation of the recommendations made by the 2008 reactive monitoring mission and the decision of the World Heritage Committee at its 33rd session. They note that the Caltongate site is looking for a new purchaser and consider that the State Party should do all it can to encourage any new developer of this highly prominent site to produce a revised scheme that reinforces the spatial layout of the Old Town and takes account of the mission’s recommendations in respect of the current plans.
At the same time, the World Heritage Centre and the Advisory Bodies welcome the development and implementation of policies and measures pertaining to the conservation of the property, including height limits, and the protection of key views, but still recommend that the State Party consider the feasibility of establishing a buffer zone through the integration of the existing conservation areas, as a means for providing more effective protection for the immediate setting of the property.
While the tram system might be a positive development for the city, further information on the project should be provided for evaluation. Impact assessment studies and protective measures should be undertaken, including on implications of this project on the displacement of traffic to historic and residential areas.
No further report is requested for the 36th session of the World Heritage Committee as progress in the implementation of development projects will be outlined within the framework of the Periodic Reporting exercise for Europe and North America to be launched in 2012.
Decision Adopted: 35COM 7B.117
The World Heritage Committee,
1. Having examined Document WHC-11/35.COM/7B,
2. Recalling Decision 33 COM 7B.132, adopted at its 33rd session (Seville, 2009);
3. Notes the progress made in the implementation of the recommendations made by the 2008 joint World Heritage Centre/ICOMOS reactive monitoring mission;
4. Welcomes the application of the "Guidance on the Protection of Key Views" and the policy on tall buildings included in the Edinburgh Local Plan in 2010 as important tools for the evaluation of future developments;
5. Acknowledges the efforts undertaken in awareness-raising during the revision of the management plan and encourages the State Party to continue developing strategies to enhance awareness of World Heritage among stakeholders and developers;
6. Also encourages the State Party to study the feasibility of integrating the current conservation areas recognized by the City of Edinburgh Council in a future buffer zone;
7. Urges the State Party to do all it can to ensure that revised plans are produced for any future development of the Caltongate site that respects the spatial layout of the Old Town;
8. Requests the State Party to provide further information to the World Heritage Centre about the tram system project for evaluation by the Advisory Bodies, undertake an impact assessment of the displacement of traffic to historic and residential areas and implement corresponding protective measures;
9. Also requests the State Party to submit to the World Heritage Centre any revised designs of current developments, as well as plans and details of any major new development projects for evaluation by the Advisory Bodies;
10. Further requests the State Party to report about the progress in the implementation of the projects within the Periodic Reporting Exercise for Europe and North America to be launched in 2012.