1.         Archaeological Site of Cyrene (Libya) (C 190)

Year of inscription on the World Heritage List  1982

Criteria  (ii)(iii)(vi)

Year(s) of inscription on the List of World Heritage in Danger    2016-present

Threats for which the property was inscribed on the List of World Heritage in Danger

Conflict situation prevailing in the country

Corrective measures identified

Not yet identified

Timeframe for the implementation of the corrective measures

Not yet established

Previous Committee Decisions  see page http://whc.unesco.org/en/list/190/documents/

International Assistance

Requests approved: 0
Total amount approved: USD 0
For details, see page http://whc.unesco.org/en/list/190/assistance/

UNESCO Extra-budgetary Funds

European Project "Protection of Cultural Heritage and Diversity in Complex Emergencies for Peace and Stability" USD 15,000

Previous monitoring missions

March 2003: World Heritage Centre mission; May 2006: World Heritage Centre Reactive Monitoring mission; January 2007: Joint World Heritage Centre/ICOMOS Reactive Monitoring mission; August 2008: Joint World Heritage Centre/ICOMOS mission

Factors affecting the property identified in previous reports

Illustrative material  see page http://whc.unesco.org/en/list/190/

Conservation issues presented to the World Heritage Committee in 2018

On 30 January 2018, the State Party submitted a state of conservation report, which is available at http://whc.unesco.org/en/list/190/documents/. Progress in a number of conservation issues addressed by the Committee at its previous sessions is presented in this report, as follows:

Analysis and Conclusions of the World Heritage Centre, ICOMOS and ICCROM

The information provided by the State Party demonstrates its commitment for the conservation of the Archaeological Site of Cyrene despite the prevailing conflict in the country, and constitutes substantial progress in the analysis of the situation at the property and of the remedial actions taken so far. Despite this commitment, urban encroachment remains a major concern, having a considerable impact on the property’s integrity.

The efforts made to elaborate the maps, including the boundaries and the buffer zone, are recognized as an indispensable step forward for the protection and management of the property. The ongoing close consultation with the World Heritage Centre and ICOMOS in this regard is highly appreciated. It is recommended that the Committee request the State Party to continue the close consultation with the World Heritage Centre and ICOMOS, and submit a Boundary Clarification followed by a Minor Boundary Modification, in line with Paragraph 164 of the Operational Guidelines for review by the Advisory Bodies.

The report does not mention whether it was possible to evaluate the existence of new settlements affecting the archaeological site. However, Municipal Resolution No 4.11.242 dated 1 July 2017, which is aimed at stopping construction work within the property, provides a legal protective framework that needs to be enforced. The coordination and dialogue with local communities on establishing an Action Plan on this issue and on delineating the boundary and buffer zone of the property is commendable, and its continuation is to be strongly encouraged.

The report is also silent on the request made by the Committee in 2017 to organize as soon as possible a technical workshop to explore ways for the monitoring and management of the property.

The current condition related to the lack of funds and human resources is regrettable, as it prevents the State Party from solving urban encroachment, addressing the sewage issue or undertaking substantial conservation works. It is recommended that the Committee request the State Party to submit an International Assistance request to address the pressing issues currently facing the property.

It is also recommended that the important efforts made by the State Party for the elaboration of a strategy for the protection of Libyan World Heritage properties build on the short- and medium-term measures identified during the International Meeting on the Safeguard of Libyan Cultural Heritage held in Tunis in May 2016. The report is available at http://whc.unesco.org/en/news/1496.

Other sources report that there is an increasing awareness at the level of the civil society and local authorities about the necessity to protect cultural heritage in Libya, including the properties inscribed on the World Heritage List. The meeting of the five-member Union of Libyan World Heritage Municipalities (Sabratha, March 2018) called for government measures to protect Libyan properties and stressed the need for coordination and coherence between the relevant authorities in this matter.

The continuous looting of Libyan cultural goods, especially from the Archaeological Site of Cyrene, is of great concern. It is therefore recommended that the Committee request the States Parties to the Convention to cooperate in the fight against illicit traffic and the protection of Libyan heritage.

It remains essential that the joint mission requested by the Committee at its 38th, 39th, 40th and 41st sessions (Doha, 2014; Bonn, 2015; Istanbul/UNESCO, 2016; Krakow, 2017) be sent to the property as soon as the security conditions permit. In the meantime, it is important that the State Party pursue its efforts to keep the World Heritage Centre updated on the situation on the ground, as well as on the further implementation of the measures it has launched, while addressing, to the extent possible, the comments and requests made by the Committee.

Decision Adopted: 42 COM 7A.22

The World Heritage Committee,

  1. Having examined Document WHC/18/42.COM/7A[.ADD],
  2. Recalling Decisions 41 COM 7A.37 and 41 COM 8C.2 adopted at its 41st session (Krakow, 2017),
  3. Commends the State Party for the important efforts made to elaborate the strategy to protect Libyan World Heritage properties, despite the prevailing unstable situation and difficult working conditions on the ground;
  4. Notes with appreciation the issuing of a Municipal Resolution in 2017 to address urban encroachment at the property and requests the State Party to continue its efforts to eliminate encroachment;
  5. Also commends the State Party for the important advances in the definition of the buffer zone of the property, and encourages it to pursue the finalization of the boundary clarification and the minor boundary modification in close consultation with the World Heritage Centre and the Advisory Bodies, and in line with Paragraph 164 of the Operational Guidelines;
  6. Also encourages the State Party to submit an International Assistance request to address the pressing conservation and management issues, lack of funds and inadequate human resources that the property is currently facing;
  7. Reiterates its request to the State Party to keep the World Heritage Centre regularly informed of the evolution of the situation at the property and of any new measures undertaken to ensure its protection and conservation, and to continue to provide detailed information on the works carried out, including technical explanations justifying the interventions;
  8. Also reiterates its request to the State Party to invite a joint World Heritage Centre/ICOMOS Reactive Monitoring mission to the property, as soon as the security conditions permit;
  9. Calls for an increased mobilization of the international community to provide more financial and technical support to the State Party, including through the UNESCO Heritage Emergency Fund, to implement the short and medium-term measures identified during the International Meeting on the Safeguard of Libyan Cultural Heritage (Tunis, May 2016);
  10. Launches an appeal to all Member States of UNESCO to cooperate in fighting against the illicit trafficking of cultural heritage coming from Libya, in engaging in the protection of cultural heritage during armed conflict as per the United Nations Security Council Resolution 2347 of March 2017, the 1954 Hague Convention for the Protection of Cultural Heritage during times of Armed Conflict and the 1970 Convention on the Means of Prohibiting and Preventing the Illicit Import, Export and Transfer of Ownership of Cultural Property, and further encourages the State Party to consider ratifying the 1995 UNIDROIT Convention on stolen or illegally exported cultural objects;
  11. Also requests the State Party to submit to the World Heritage Centre, by 1 February 2019, an updated report on the state of conservation of the property and the implementation of the above, for examination by the World Heritage Committee at its 43rd session in 2019;
  12. Decides to retain the Archaeological Site of Cyrene (Libya) on the List of World Heritage in Danger.

Decision Adopted: 42 COM 8C.2

The World Heritage Committee,

  1. Having examined the state of conservation reports of properties inscribed on the List of World Heritage in Danger (WHC/18/42.COM/7A, WHC/18/42.COM/7A.Add and WHC/18/42.COM/7A.Add.2),
  2. Decides to retain the following properties on the List of World Heritage in Danger:

Decision Adopted: 42 COM 8D

The World Heritage Committee,

  1. Having examined Document WHC/18/42.COM/8D,
  2. Recalling Decision 41 COM 8D, adopted at its 41st session (Krakow, 2017),
  3. Acknowledges the excellent work accomplished by States Parties in the clarification of the boundaries of their World Heritage properties and commends them for their efforts to improve the credibility of the World Heritage List;
  4. Recalls that the World Heritage Centre and the Advisory Bodies are not able to examine proposals for minor or significant modifications to boundaries of World Heritage properties whenever the delimitations of such properties as inscribed remain unclear;
  5. Takes note of the clarifications of property boundaries and areas provided by the States Parties as presented in the Annex of Document WHC/18/42.COM/8D:

    ARAB STATES

    • Libya, Archaeological Site of Cyrene
    • Libya, Archaeological Site of Leptis Magna
    • Libya, Archaeological Site of Sabratha
    • Libya, Old Town of Ghadamès
    • Libya, Rock-Art Sites of Tadrart Acacus

    EUROPE AND NORTH AMERICA

    • Netherlands, Defence Line of Amsterdam
    • Spain, Ibiza, Biodiversity and Culture

    LATIN AMERICA AND THE CARIBBEAN

    • Haiti, National History Park – Citadel, Sans Souci, Ramiers
    • Mexico, Pre-Hispanic Town of Uxmal;
  6. Requests the States Parties which have not yet answered the questions raised in the framework of the Retrospective Inventory to provide all clarifications and documentation as soon as possible, and by 1 December 2018 at the latest, for their subsequent examination, if the technical requirements are met, by the World Heritage Committee at its 43rd session in 2019.