1.         Tiwanaku: Spiritual and Political Centre of the Tiwanaku Culture (Bolivia (Plurinational State of)) (C 567rev)

Year of inscription on the World Heritage List  2000

Criteria  (iii)(iv)

Year(s) of inscription on the List of World Heritage in Danger  N/A

Previous Committee Decisions  see page http://whc.unesco.org/en/list/567/documents/

International Assistance

Requests approved: 0 (from 1995-1995)
Total amount approved: USD 4,000
For details, see page http://whc.unesco.org/en/list/567/assistance/

UNESCO Extra-budgetary Funds

Total amount provided to the property: USD 870 000 (2008-2011, Japanese Funds-in-Trust-JFIT project) 

Previous monitoring missions

August 2002: UNESCO and International Expert Mission; in the framework of the JFIT project - November 2007: World Heritage Centre Preparatory Mission; February – March 2009: World Heritage Centre Technical Assessment Mission for the implementation of a JFIT project; November 2009: World Heritage Centre/UNESCO Quito Office follow-up Mission; November 2010: joint World Heritage Centre/ICOMOS Mission.

Factors affecting the property identified in previous reports

a) Lack of a management plan for the site;

b) Lack of coordinated conservation policies and interventions between the national government and the Municipality of Tiwanaku;

c) Need for the designation of a national counterpart for the JFIT project and a site manager at the local level;

d) Lack of governance.

Illustrative material  see page http://whc.unesco.org/en/list/567/

Conservation issues presented to the World Heritage Committee in 2011

The State Party did not submit a state of conservation report as was requested by the World Heritage Committee at its 34th session (Brasilia, 2010). However, a joint World Heritage Centre/ICOMOS reactive monitoring mission was carried out in November 2010 to evaluate the current state of conservation of the property, as well as the management arrangements and the progress made in the implementation of prior Decisions of the World Heritage Committee.

a) Management system

The mission reports that legislative and regulatory frameworks are currently being reviewed with a new Ministerial Decree foreseen for the property to regulate the roles and responsibilities of the various entities at the local and national levels. The proposed management system will entail participation from the local communities; however the mission noted that the proposed Board will include political representatives who will be making technical decisions. Modifications to the composition of the Board have been suggested to ensure the technical management of the site. As for institutional arrangements, the appointment of new directors at different levels and the hiring of professionally trained staff are expected to improve failed co-ordination and also facilitate dialogue between the local and national governments, for better conservation and management of the property. However, there are still issues to be resolved regarding skilled technical workers to carry out interventions.

The management plan for the property has not been finalized, which has hindered the sustained implementation of actions for the property. The mission noted that a participatory approach is needed to ensure its adoption by the diverse stakeholders involved with the property. It is important that the management plan for the property be integrated with on-going initiatives focused on the development of land use and development programmes currently being financed by the World Bank for the Lake Titicaca Project.

b) Protection of the property

The mission reports that no policy has been developed for the integrated management of the property and its surrounding areas, and that land use plans have yet to be developed. Only the monumental centre has been physically de-limited, however no surveys have been carried out to determine the extent of the area that needs to be protected. The zoning of the property, including the definition of a buffer zone, remains a critical need. In addition, the lack of enforcement of regulations and the limited awareness regarding the significance of the archaeological heritage has impacted the remains as no archaeological evaluation or supervision is conducted when works are being implemented. Municipal ordinances are needed to provide regulations for the use of the various zones, as well as procedures for all public works.

c) Current state of conservation

The mission reports that information on interventions carried out is very limited and there is no central repository of data that would facilitate decision-making for the property. As for the archaeological structures, the mission carried out a detailed inspection and identified decay factors and processes arising both from natural and man-made phenomena. Main issues identified are related to the uncontrolled flow of rainwater and lack of proper drainage, soil erosion, biological and stone decay. The mission also noted that interventions at buildings have not been based on archaeological and topographic information, and there is no integrated approach to interventions which has greatly impacted the structures, in particular the Akapana building. Additionally, there are no visitor management strategies in place which has also affected the fabric of the property. Adequate interpretation and presentation is also lacking, in particular the relationship between the ceremonial and the urban centres. The management plan will need to include a comprehensive conservation plan, with precise interventions for each of the monuments including guidelines and principles that take into account practice and standards at the international level, as well as a public use plan. The existing museums are in poor condition and affecting the existing collections, and no interventions are currently being carried out pending the judicial resolution of cases involving both museums.

d) UNESCO Project for the Conservation and Preservation of Tiwanaku and the Akapana Pyramid

The mission reports that the implementation of the Japanese Funds-in-Trust (JFIT) project has been hindered by the lack of co-ordination between the various entities at the national and local levels, however new arrangements are expected to overcome this impasse. New timeframes and a plan of activities need to be determined in accordance with new conditions in the country, and pending the approval of the Ministerial Decree to ensure the official endorsement and sustained implementation of the project.

Analysis and Conclusions of the World Heritage Centre, ICOMOS and ICCROM

The World Heritage Centre and the Advisory Bodies recommend that the World Heritage Committee express its concern regarding the delay in the finalization of the property’s management plan. They consider that current approaches to the interventions being carried out at the property, with particular focus on the Akapana Pyramid, should be re-evaluated, with a focus on scientific archaeological interventions and conservation actions. They also recommend that the World Heritage Committee invite the State Party to pursue with urgency the organization of an international meeting to define regulations and guidelines for the development of a conservation plan for the property.

Decision Adopted: 35 COM 7B.119

The World Heritage Committee,

1. Having examined Document WHC-11/35.COM/7B.Add,

2. Recalling Decision 34 COM 7B.105, adopted at its 34th session (Brasilia, 2010),

3. Regrets that the State Party did not submit the required state of conservation report as requested at its 34th session (Brasilia, 2010);

4. Notes the results of the November 2010 joint World Heritage Centre/ICOMOS reactive monitoring mission and its recommendations and requests the State Party to:

a) Finalize the process for the adoption and enforcement of the new Ministerial Decree for the property,

b) Secure the required human and financial resources for the conservation and management of the property,

c) Carry out an archaeological survey of the area adjacent to the property, in order to define a buffer zone and establish appropriate regulatory measures to ensure its protection;

5. Also requests the State Party, within the framework of the Japanese Funds-in-Trust project, to work in collaboration with the World Heritage Centre and the Advisory Bodies to:

a) Organize an international meeting to define regulations and guidelines for the development of a conservation plan for the property,

b) Design and install an integrated water drainage system, based on the multidisciplinary study of each monument,

c) Develop the Management Plan for the property, including archaeological, conservation and public use components, and articulate it with other existing planning tools, such as land use plans;

6. Further requests the State Party to submit to the World Heritage Centre and the Advisory Bodies technical specifications on planned projects relating to interventions at the property, in accordance with Paragraph 172 of the Operational Guidelines, for consideration and review before any commitment is made toward implementation;

7. Requests furthermore the State Party to submit to the World Heritage Centre, by 1 February 2013, an updated report on the state of conservation of the property and the implementation of the above, for examination by the World Heritage Committee at its 37th session in 2013.