Volcanoes of Kamchatka (Russian Federation) (N 765bis)
Year of inscription on the World Heritage List 1996
Year(s) of inscription on the List of World Heritage in Danger N/A
Previous Committee Decisions see page http://whc.unesco.org/en/list/765/documents/
Requests approved: 0
Total amount approved: USD 0
For details, see page http://whc.unesco.org/en/list/765/assistance/
UNESCO Extra-budgetary Funds
Previous monitoring missions
1997: IUCN fact-finding mission; May 2004, August 2007: Joint World Heritage Centre / IUCN Reactive Monitoring missions
Factors affecting the property identified in previous reports
- Illegal salmon fishing
- Gold mining
- Gas pipeline
- Development of a geothermal power station
- Forest fires
- Boundary changes
- Construction of the Esso-Palana road
- Need for the development of a comprehensive national legal framework for the protection and management of natural properties
- Decline in populations of wild reindeer and snow sheep
- Lack of management structure and coordination system
Illustrative material see page http://whc.unesco.org/en/list/765/
Conservation issues presented to the World Heritage Committee in 2016
On 29 January 2016, the State Party submitted a report on the state of conservation of the property, which is available at https://whc.unesco.org/en/list/765/documents/ and reports as follows:
- With regards to the hydropower projects on the Zhupanova River, no hydropower plants are planned within the property or in the adjacent areas and that the President of the Russian Federation commissioned the regional Government of Kamchatka to consider alternative sources for providing electricity to the region;
- There have been no changes to the boundaries of the nature parks and their total area is 2,475,036 ha. The report further notes that the maps of the property provided by the State Party in its report in 2014 are up-to-date;
- Although no management plan has been prepared for the entire property, cooperation exists between the organizations managing its component protected areas;
- The report provides information on ongoing monitoring activities and their key results, including for the wild northern reindeer for which the monitoring activities are aimed at identifying the reasons for population decrease in Kronotsky State Nature Reserve. Reported activities also include monitoring of the populations of the Sockeye salmon and other fish species in Kronotsky and Yuzhno-Kamchatsky Strict Nature Reserves;
- Concerns are raised regarding a number of potential threats to the values of the property from illegal fishing and hunting. It is likely that the property is affected by poaching, given the reduction of game stock in the areas surrounding the property. Species with a wide geographical distribution or long migration routes are particularly threatened by hunting that may occur outside the property. The presence of fishing vessels within the marine area of the property has also been registered. The State Party notes the need to increase anti-poaching activities within the property and to strengthen protection of the coastal areas. The areas of the four nature parks are also threatened by hunting and fishing sites within their boundaries.
Analysis and Conclusions of the World Heritage Centre and IUCN
The information provided by the State Party that no hydropower projects are planned within the property or in adjacent areas and that the Government of Kamchatka has been requested to consider alternative power sources is welcomed.
With regards to the boundaries of the property and specifically its four components Nalychevo, South Kamchatka, Bystrinsky and Kluchevskoy Regional Nature Parks, the clarifications of the State Party that their boundaries have not been changed and the cartographic material submitted in its report are noted. The State Party reports that the total area of the four nature parks is 2,475,036 ha which differs from the area of 2,526,150 ha reported in the 2014 Periodic Report to which the State Party is referring. It is therefore recommended that the World Heritage Committee request the State Party to clarify again the total area of each of the four nature parks, and to explain any discrepancies.
The measures undertaken by the State Party in the field of species monitoring are noted. It is recommended that the World Heritage Committee request the State Party to continue its efforts, particularly with regards to the monitoring of the wild northern reindeer population for which declines have been reported.
Information that cooperation is ongoing between the authorities managing the different components of the property is welcome. However, it is regrettable that no significant progress has been achieved by the State Party in the implementation of the 2007 Reactive Monitoring mission recommendation to develop a joint management plan and a joint management framework for the entire property.
The concerns expressed by the State Party with regards to potential threats to the property, particularly from increasing poaching, are alarming. It is recommended that the World Heritage Committee also request the State Party to increase anti-poaching activities within the entire property and to provide the necessary resources for these activities. The information that the four nature parks appear to be threatened by hunting and fishing sites within their boundaries also raises serious concern. It should be recalled that the 2007 mission recommended strengthening the protection regime of the four nature parks either by upgrading them to national parks or by revising their zoning. It is crucial that the protection regime of all components of the property is sufficient to ensure the protection of the property’s Outstanding Universal Value (OUV) and its integrity. It is therefore recommended that the State Party be requested to consider strengthening the protection regime of the four nature parks through appropriate mechanisms and to submit to the World Heritage Centre detailed information about the current zoning regime of each of the nature parks and the allowed activities in each zone. It is further recommended that the Committee request the State Party to ensure that no activities are permitted within the boundaries of the property which could negatively affect its OUV.
Decision Adopted: 40 COM 7B.100
The World Heritage Committee,
- Having examined Document WHC/16/40.COM/7B,
- Recalling Decision 39 COM 7B.20, adopted at its 39th session (Bonn, 2015),
- Welcomes the confirmation that no hydropower projects are planned within the property or in adjacent areas and that the Government of Kamchatka has been requested to consider alternative power sources;
- Acknowledges the measures undertaken by the State Party in the field of species monitoring and requests the State Party to continue its efforts;
- Also welcomes the information provided by the State Party that there have been no changes to the boundaries of the four components of the property which are regional nature parks, as well as the provided cartographic material, but notes however that there continues to be some discrepancy between the total area of the four nature parks reported by the State Party in its state of conservation report and in its 2014 Periodic Report, and also requests the State Party to clarify the total area of each component of the property and explain any discrepancies;
- Notes with concern the conclusion of the State Party that the property might be threatened in the future by increasing illegal hunting and fishing, and urges the State Party to increase anti-poaching activities in the entire property and to provide the necessary resources for these activities;
- Notes with utmost concern that the areas of the four nature parks are also threatened by hunting and fishing within their boundaries, and further requests the State Party to consider strengthening the protection regime of the four regional nature parks of the property, as recommended by the 2007 mission, and to submit to the World Heritage Centre, as a matter of urgency, detailed information on the current zoning regime of each nature park and on the allowed activities in each zone;
- Also urges the State Party to ensure that no activities, that could negatively affect its Outstanding Universal Value and integrity, are permitted within the boundaries of the property;
- Requests furthermore the State Party to submit to the World Heritage Centre, by 1 December 2017, an updated report on the state of conservation of the property and the implementation of the above, for examination by the World Heritage Committee at its 42nd session in 2018.