Year of inscription on the World Heritage List 1981
Year(s) of inscription on the List of World Heritage in Danger 2004-2014
Threats for which the property was inscribed on the List of World Heritage in Danger
Deterioration and decay leading to the collapse of the historical and archaeological structures for which the property was inscribed
Desired state of conservation for the removal of the property from the List of World Heritage in Danger
The desired state of conservation was adopted by the World Heritage Committee at its 32nd session (Quebec City, 2008). See Decision 32 COM 7A.14, http://whc.unesco.org/en/decisions/1586/
Corrective measures identified
The following corrective measures were adopted by the World Heritage Committee at its 32nd session (Quebec City, 2008):
a) Implement urgent measures to halt sea-wave action;
b) Survey and demarcate the boundaries of the property including extension;
c) Improve and implement the management and conservation plans;
d) Provide for on-site management staff;
e) Halt the vegetation growth within and around monuments;
f) Halt of illegal removal of monuments’ stone for private constructions.
Timeframe for the implementation of corrective measures
See Decision 32 COM 7A.14, http://whc.unesco.org/en/decisions/1586/
Previous Committee Decisions see page http://whc.unesco.org/en/list/144/documents/
Requests approved: 0
Total amount approved: USD 56,053
For details, see page http://whc.unesco.org/en/list/144/assistance/
UNESCO Extra-budgetary Funds
Total amount provided to the property: The Norwegian Funds-in-Trust provided support for UNESCO rehabilitation project (USD 201,390).
Previous monitoring missions
February 2004: ICOMOS mission; June 2008 and March 2009: Joint World Heritage Centre/ICOMOS reactive monitoring missions.
Factors affecting the property identified in previous reports
a) Lack of approved boundaries for core and buffer zones linked to the land-use plans and appropriate protection;
b) Deterioration of the architectural heritage fabric;
c) Sea wave erosion;
d) Theft of stone from ruins for use as building material;
e) Lack of functioning local consultative committee;
f) Lack of implementation of the conservation and management plans.
Illustrative material see page http://whc.unesco.org/en/list/144/
Conservation issues presented to the World Heritage Committee in 2011
On 2 February 2011, the State Party submitted a state of conservation report, providing responses to the decisions of the World Heritage Committee at its 34th session (Brasilia, 2010).
a) Measures to halt sea-wave action
The State Party reports that a sea wall, built of coral blocks embedded in traditional mortar, at a depth of 1.5 meters and a length of 150 meters has been constructed in front of the Malindi sea front which is considered to be effective. There are plans to construct a second wall at the southwest corner of Makutani Palace in the near future.
b) Survey and demarcation of the boundaries of the property including extension
The State Party reports that consultations are underway with the Survey and Mapping Unit of the Ministry of Natural Resources and Tourism for demarcating the boundaries and buffer zone and mapping them. The work will be carried out in April 2011. The defined boundaries will be submitted to the World Heritage Centre in 2011 and the proposed buffer zone will be submitted to the World Heritage Committee in time for its 36th session in 2012. There is no mention, however, about the possibility of an extension of the property as requested by the World Heritage Committee at its 32nd session.
c) Management and conservation plans
The report indicates that a three year strategic plan has been developed based on the corrective measures suggested by ICOMOS experts. The State Party also reports that they have prepared, in collaboration with a number of partners, a proposal for an overall conservation project for the property and for a comprehensive management plan for Songo Mnara. The State Party further reports that a workshop was held in Nairobi, Kenya from 27 – 28 January 2011, entitled “Planning Meeting to Develop a Comprehensive Management Plan for Songo Mnara, Tanzania; Conservation, Archaeology, tourism and Community Involvement”. The State Party will submit the results of this meeting to the World Heritage Centre.
d) On-site management staff
The State Party reports that they are continuing to try to improve on-site management and recruit more staff. In particular, they report that two Japanese volunteers with backgrounds in architecture and museums will be assigned to the property as of August 2011.
e) Vegetation growth within and around monuments
The State Party reports that vegetation has been removed at Malindi, Gereza, and the Makutani Palace. Work will continue on the Makutani area, the Sultan’s tombs, and the Forty Sheikhs monuments, with work foreseen for completion by July of 2011. However, the report acknowledges that there is a need to carry out more careful conservation studies of some monuments before removing vegetation that is embedded within their walls, in order to avoid damage to the structures. The State Party further reports that a group of village youths is being engaged in part of the vegetation control process. They also report plans to carry out an inventory of trees at the property.
f) Conservation of architectural structures
The State Party reports conservation work being carried out on a number of monuments within the property. These include the Malindi Mosque and Cemetery, and the Gereza Fort. Emergency conservation works were also carried out at the Makutani Palace. Works include cleaning of the site and removal of rubble and vegetation, repair or replacement of decaying mangrove and of lime mortar where necessary, and repair of cracks. Additional work still needs to be carried out including the replacement of some doors, and the placement of stones at the base of the monuments to help protect them from sea erosion. Work has been carried out with assistance from the World Monuments Fund and the United Nations Joint Programme.
g) Cattle grazing
The State Party reports that efforts have been made to limit or stop cattle grazing at both Songo Mnara and Kilwa Kisiwani. In regard to the former, the site manager has worked with the village administration and the Ruins Committee to ensure that grazing has stopped. In regard to the latter, the site manager has worked with the Kilwa Masoko township authority to declare all grazing illegal in unauthorized areas. Meetings have also been held with cattle owners.
h) Timeframe for carrying out corrective measures
The State Party reports progress on many of the corrective measures, but states that the success of the corrective measures will depend on the availability of funding. For this reason, the State Party states that it proposes to request funding from UNESCO and other sources. As a result, the State Party would like to request a reconsideration of the timetable for carrying out the corrective measures to ensure that it takes into account the availability of funding.
Analysis and Conclusions of the World Heritage Centre, ICOMOS and ICCROM
The World Heritage Centre and Advisory Bodies note the progress made by the State Party on a number of the corrective measures. In particular, the construction of the sea wall, the removal of vegetation, the efforts to control grazing, and the conservation work carried out at some of the important monuments. They note, however, that a great deal of work still needs to be carried out both in the area of limiting sea erosion and on the conservation of structures at the property. In addition, they emphasize the need for a monitoring regime to be put in place both to monitor the ongoing effects of sea erosion, the state of conservation of the monuments, and vegetation growth, which should lead to a maintenance strategy to deal with these problems in the long term.
Further, there is a need for the boundaries and buffer zones to be defined. The work on the boundaries and buffer zone was already scheduled to be completed according to the corrective measures, but as the State Party points out, some of these measures are being carried out at a slower pace than anticipated. In regard to planning mechanisms, the World Heritage Centre and the Advisory Bodies note the progress made by the State Party but would request more information on the proposed conservation plan and the comprehensive management plan for Songo Mnara and how this will be linked to the plan for the main island. They further note the desire of the State Party to re-examine the timeframe for the implementation of the corrective measures and would be happy to support a proposal to work with the State Party as necessary to redefine this timeframe. Further, they would suggest that the State Party makes a request for International Assistance, if necessary, for the implementation of some of the corrective measures as mentioned by the State Party.
Decision Adopted: 35COM 7A.18
The World Heritage Committee,
1. Having examined Document WHC-11/35.COM/7A,
2. Recalling Decision 34 COM 7A.16, adopted at its 34th session (Brasilia, 2010),
3. Notes the progress made by the State Party in the areas of limiting sea erosion, the removal of vegetation, the control of grazing, and the conservation work carried out at some of the important monuments;
4. Requests the State Party to complete the work on the definition of the boundaries of the property and its buffer zone, as per the corrective measures adopted for the property;
5. Also requests further information on the proposals for an overall conservation project for the property and the comprehensive management plan for Songo Mnara and how this plan will be linked to the one for the main island;
6. Further requests the State Party to review and revise the timeframe for the implementation of corrective measures in collaboration with the World Heritage Centre and the Advisory Bodies;
7. Invites the State Party to consider requesting International Assistance for the implementation of some of the corrective measures;
8. Requests furthermore the State Party to submit to the World Heritage Centre, by 1 February 2012, an updated report on the state of conservation of the property and the implementation of the above, for examination by the World Heritage Committee at its 36th session in 2012;
9. Decides to retain the Ruins of Kilwa Kisiwani and Ruins of Songo Mnara (United Republic of Tanzania) on the List of World Heritage in Danger.
Decision Adopted: 35COM 8C.2
The World Heritage Committee,
1. Following the examination of the state of conservation reports of properties inscribed on the List of World Heritage in Danger (WHC-11/35.COM/7A, WHC-11/35.COM/7A.Add and WHC-11/35.COM/7A.Add.Corr),
2. Decides to maintain the following properties on the List of World Heritage in Danger:
Decision Adopted: 35COM 8E
The World Heritage Committee,
1. Having examined Document WHC-11/35.COM/8E,
2. Adopts the retrospective Statements of Outstanding Universal Value, as presented in the Annex I of Document WHC-11/35.COM/8E, for the following World Heritage properties:
- Afghanistan: Minaret and Archaeological Remains of Jam; Cultural Landscape and Archaeological Remains of the Bamiyan Valley;
- Bahrain: Qal'at al-Bahrain - Ancient Harbour and Capital of Dilmun;
- Benin: Royal Palaces of Abomey;
- Botswana: Tsodilo;
- Cameroon: Dja Faunal Reserve;
- Central African Republic: Manovo-Gounda St Floris National Park;
- China: Three Parallel Rivers of Yunnan Protected Areas;
- Germany: Upper Middle Rhine Valley;
- India: Manas Wildlife Sanctuary;
- Kenya: Lake Turkana National Parks; Lamu Old Town;
- Malawi: Chongoni Rock-Art Area;
- Mali: Old Towns of Djenné;
- Pakistan: Fort and Shalamar Gardens in Lahore;
- Peru: Chan Chan Archaeological Zone;
- Philippines: Rice Terraces of the Philippine Cordilleras;
- Senegal: Island of Saint-Louis;
- South Africa: iSimangaliso Wetland Park; Robben Island; Mapungubwe Cultural Landscape; Cape Floral Region Protected Areas; Vredefort Dome;
- Togo: Koutammakou, the Land of the Batammariba;
- Turkey: Historic Areas of Istanbul;
- Uganda: Bwindi Impenetrable National Park; Rwenzori Mountains National Park;
- United Republic of Tanzania: Ruins of Kilwa Kisiwani and Ruins of Songo Mnara;
- Yemen: Old Walled City of Shibam; Old City of Sana'a;
- Zimbabwe: Mana Pools National Park, Sapi and Chewore Safari Areas;
3. Decides that retrospective Statements of Outstanding Universal Value for World Heritage properties in Danger will be reviewed in priority;
4. Further decides that, considering the high number of retrospective Statements of Outstanding Universal Value to be examined, the order in which they will be reviewed will follow the Second Cycle of Periodic Reporting, namely:
- World Heritage properties in the Arab States;
- World Heritage properties in Africa;
- World Heritage properties in Asia and the Pacific;
- World Heritage properties in Latin America and the Caribbean;
- World Heritage properties in Europe and North America.