1.         Memphis and its Necropolis – the Pyramid Fields from Giza to Dahshur (Egypt) (C 86)

Year of inscription on the World Heritage List  1979

Criteria  (i)(iii)(vi)

Year(s) of inscription on the List of World Heritage in Danger  N/A

Previous Committee Decisions  see page http://whc.unesco.org/en/list/86/documents/

International Assistance

Requests approved: 0 (from 1991-1995)
Total amount approved: USD 81,450
For details, see page http://whc.unesco.org/en/list/86/assistance/

UNESCO Extra-budgetary Funds

N/A

Previous monitoring missions

N/A

Factors affecting the property identified in previous reports

Illustrative material  see page http://whc.unesco.org/en/list/86/

Information presented to the Bureau of the World Heritage Committee in 1997

A preparatory study on the ventilation of the tombs of Saqqara in the Valley of the Kings and at Abu Simbel was carried out by INERIS (National Institute for Natural Environment and Risks, France), the Supreme Council of Antiquities (SCA) and the University of Cairo, in October 1996.  It was financed by the French Ministry of Foreign Affairs, with support from the World Heritage Centre, and organized at site by the Cairo Office which will follow up on the recommendations. The study evaluated the negative effects of tourism on the conservation of mural paintings, with particular attention to heat, carbonic gas and water condensation.  The expert made several recommendations, notably with regard to the advantage of air-conditioning systems as opposed to more simple ventilation, and concerning provisional preventive measures to undertake at Abu Simbel.  The study will continue through spring 1997 and concrete solutions will be forthcoming.

Action Required

After having taken note of the report of the Secretariat regarding the studies carried out in several tombs at Saqqara in the Necropolis of Thebes and at Abu Simbel, by INERIS, the Supreme Council of Antiquities and the University of Cairo, the Bureau thanked the Egyptian authorities for their cooperation and invited them to implement the recommendations of the experts concerning the ventilation of these monuments, which would ensure the long-term conservation of their mural paintings.

Conservation issues presented to the World Heritage Committee in 1997

N/A

Analysis and Conclusions of the World Heritage Centre, ICOMOS and ICCROM

N/A

Decision Adopted: 21 BUR IV.B.38

After having taken note of the report of the Secretariat regarding the studies carried out in several tombs at Saqqara in the Necropolis of Thebes and at Abu Simbel, by INERIS, the Supreme Council of Antiquities and the University of Cairo, the Bureau thanked the Egyptian authorities for their cooperation and invited them to implement the recommendations of the experts concerning the ventilation of these monuments, which would ensure the long-term conservation of their mural paintings.