Year of inscription on the World Heritage List 2002
Year(s) of inscription on the List of World Heritage in Danger 2002-present
Threats for which the property was inscribed on the List of World Heritage in Danger
See committee decision 26 COM 23.3
Desired state of conservation for the removal of the property from the List of World Heritage in Danger
See Committee decision 31 COM 7A.20
Corrective measures identified
See Committee decision 31COM7A.20
Timeframe for the implementation of the corrective measures
A minimum of four years has been agreed in 2007, i.e. by 2011.
Previous Committee Decisions see page http://whc.unesco.org/en/list/211/documents/
Requests approved: 0
Total amount approved: USD 20,000
For details, see page http://whc.unesco.org/en/list/211/assistance/
UNESCO Extra-budgetary Funds
Total amount provided to the property: USD 845,000 provided by the Government of Italy and USD 138,000 by the Government of Switzerland.
Previous monitoring missions
Although there has been no reactive monitoring mission as such, several UNESCO expert missions were sent every year from 2002 to 2006 in order to implement the operational project for the property. However, since 2007 no UNESCO expert mission has been carried out to the property, due to the deteriorated situation and UN Security restrictions.
Factors affecting the property identified in previous reports
a) Political instability;
b) Inclination of the Minaret;
c) Lack of management plan;
d) Illicit excavations and looting.
Illustrative material see page http://whc.unesco.org/en/list/211/
Conservation issues presented to the World Heritage Committee in 2011
As requested by the World Heritage Committee at its 34th session (Decision 34 COM 7A. 20), the State Party submitted to the World Heritage Centre a draft Statement of Outstanding Universal Value on 8 February 2011. However, no progress report on the implementation of the corrective measures by the State Party was submitted as of 12 May 2011.
Due to the volatile security situation in Afghanistan, no UNESCO international expert mission could be dispatched to the property to follow up the UNESCO/Italy and Switzerland Funds-In-Trust projects from 2007 to 2009. For this reason, the World Heritage Centre identified an Afghan partner, Afghan Land Consulting Organisation (ALCO), to resume and implement on-site activities in 2010 during the first UNESCO fieldwork on the property since three years.
With regard to corrective measures identified by the World Heritage Committee, the following progress has been noted:
a) Identification of the property’s boundaries and buffer zone
Financed through the UNESCO/Switzerland Funds-in-Trust agreement, ALCO undertook a three-week mission to Jam in May 2010. Accompanied by two Afghan officials from the Ministry of Information and Culture (hereafter called MoIC), the purpose was to clearly determine the boundaries of the property and to gather technical documentation of the Minaret. The successful mission resulted in establishing a topographical plan for the property, in addition to producing complete three-dimensional documentation of the Minaret and its geometric details. A concurrent in-situ training session was also organized for the two accompanying officials in order for them to continue the work. The topographic plan will now allow the relevant Afghan authorities to precisely define the World Heritage property boundary and its buffer zone.
b) Long-term consolidation and conservation of the monument, site security, and increased capacity of the staff of the Ministry of Information and Culture
In accordance with the revised work plan of the UNESCO/Italy Funds-in-Trust project, approved by the Italian Government on 16 April 2010, the World Heritage Centre had planned to carry out some on-site preservation work in Jam. However, due to various circumstances, activities such as the replacement of the wooden elements inside the Minaret, and the geophysical surveys, were postponed until 2011.
Furthermore, in pursuing a recommendation derived from the 2008 Second Expert Working Group Meeting in Rome, the World Heritage Centre made the best effort to establish the cooperation with the Italian Carabinieri Tutela Patrimonio Culturale through mutual consultation. The aim was to organize training programmes to reinforce site security in accordance with the ‘corrective measures’ as defined by the World Heritage Committee. As a result, it was agreed to improve site conditions against looting and vandalism by holding a two-week training workshop in Kabul.
Accordingly, the World Heritage Centre is planning to implement the following programme during 2011:
i) Conservation work, including replacement of the internal wooden elements of the Minaret;
ii) A training programme to reinforcing conservation capacity-building:
· Training guards and staff from the MoIC in on-site security;
· Training on the use of measurement equipment by Afghan MoIC experts/officials so that they can independently carry out future monitoring of the Minaret inclination;
iii) Elaboration of the long-term conservation plan for the Minaret of Jam.
Analysis and Conclusions of the World Heritage Centre, ICOMOS and ICCROM
The World Heritage Centre and the Advisory Bodies recognize the State Party’s efforts to cooperate in undertaking the mission with ALCO leading to the clear identification of the property boundaries. In addition, they note the continued technical and financial support and commitment of the international community, notably from Italy and Switzerland, in order to achieve the desired state of conservation of the property. However, they regret that no further information was made available regarding the progress on the implementation of all the above corrective measures. They also regret the absence of a proper management system at the property; the lack of capacity within the MoIC; and the lack of a state of conservation report from the State Party.
Decision Adopted: 35COM 7A.24
The World Heritage Committee,
1. Having examined Document WHC-11/35.COM/7A.Add,
2. Recalling Decisions 33 COM 7A.20 and 34 COM 7A.20 adopted at its 33rd (Seville, 2009) and 34th (Brasilia, 2010) sessions respectively,
3. Takes note of the draft Statement of Outstanding Universal Value submitted by the State Party, as requested by the World Heritage Committee at its 34th session (Brasilia, 2010);
4. Regrets that the State Party has not submitted a state of conservation report, as requested by the World Heritage Committee at its 34th session (Brasilia, 2010);
5. Reiterates its request to the State Party to continue its efforts towards implementing all the corrective measures adopted at its 31st session (Christchurch, 2007);
6. Calls upon the international community, in co-operation with the World Heritage Centre, to continue its technical and financial support with the aim of implementing all the agreed corrective measures and, particularly, the prioritised activities identified in the recommendations of the Expert Group Meeting in Rome (June 2008), including national capacity building in order to reach the Desired state of conservation for the property;
7. Requests the State Party to submit to the World Heritage Centre, by 1February 2012, a report on the state of conservation of the property, on the implementation of the corrective measures, and on progress made in the establishment of a proper management system for the property, for examination by the World Heritage Committee at its 36th session in 2012;
8. Decides to retain the Minaret and Archaeological Remains of Jam (Afghanistan) on the List of World Heritage in Danger.
Decision Adopted: 35COM 8C.2
The World Heritage Committee,
1. Following the examination of the state of conservation reports of properties inscribed on the List of World Heritage in Danger (WHC-11/35.COM/7A, WHC-11/35.COM/7A.Add and WHC-11/35.COM/7A.Add.Corr),
2. Decides to maintain the following properties on the List of World Heritage in Danger:
Decision Adopted: 35COM 8E
The World Heritage Committee,
1. Having examined Document WHC-11/35.COM/8E,
2. Adopts the retrospective Statements of Outstanding Universal Value, as presented in the Annex I of Document WHC-11/35.COM/8E, for the following World Heritage properties:
- Afghanistan: Minaret and Archaeological Remains of Jam; Cultural Landscape and Archaeological Remains of the Bamiyan Valley;
- Bahrain: Qal'at al-Bahrain - Ancient Harbour and Capital of Dilmun;
- Benin: Royal Palaces of Abomey;
- Botswana: Tsodilo;
- Cameroon: Dja Faunal Reserve;
- Central African Republic: Manovo-Gounda St Floris National Park;
- China: Three Parallel Rivers of Yunnan Protected Areas;
- Germany: Upper Middle Rhine Valley;
- India: Manas Wildlife Sanctuary;
- Kenya: Lake Turkana National Parks; Lamu Old Town;
- Malawi: Chongoni Rock-Art Area;
- Mali: Old Towns of Djenné;
- Pakistan: Fort and Shalamar Gardens in Lahore;
- Peru: Chan Chan Archaeological Zone;
- Philippines: Rice Terraces of the Philippine Cordilleras;
- Senegal: Island of Saint-Louis;
- South Africa: iSimangaliso Wetland Park; Robben Island; Mapungubwe Cultural Landscape; Cape Floral Region Protected Areas; Vredefort Dome;
- Togo: Koutammakou, the Land of the Batammariba;
- Turkey: Historic Areas of Istanbul;
- Uganda: Bwindi Impenetrable National Park; Rwenzori Mountains National Park;
- United Republic of Tanzania: Ruins of Kilwa Kisiwani and Ruins of Songo Mnara;
- Yemen: Old Walled City of Shibam; Old City of Sana'a;
- Zimbabwe: Mana Pools National Park, Sapi and Chewore Safari Areas;
3. Decides that retrospective Statements of Outstanding Universal Value for World Heritage properties in Danger will be reviewed in priority;
4. Further decides that, considering the high number of retrospective Statements of Outstanding Universal Value to be examined, the order in which they will be reviewed will follow the Second Cycle of Periodic Reporting, namely:
- World Heritage properties in the Arab States;
- World Heritage properties in Africa;
- World Heritage properties in Asia and the Pacific;
- World Heritage properties in Latin America and the Caribbean;
- World Heritage properties in Europe and North America.