Year of inscription on the World Heritage List
Garamba National Park: 1980
Garamba National Park: (vii)(x)
Previous Committee Decisions:
See page http://whc.unesco.org/en/list/475
See page http://whc.unesco.org/en/list/475
Year(s) of inscription on the List of World Heritage in Danger
Threats for which the property was inscribed on the List of World Heritage in Danger The Garamba National Park was inscribed again on the List of World Heritage in Danger in 1996 for the following reasons: a) Increased poaching; b) Pressure linked to the civil war, thereby threatening the flagship species of the property. Threats for which the property was inscribed on the List of World Heritage in Danger The Garamba National Park was listed for the first time on the List of World Heritage in Danger between 1984 and 1992 due to a serious decline in the population of white rhinos. With the success of the measures taken by the World Heritage Committee, IUCN, WWF, the Frankfurt Zoological Society and the national authorities, the rhino population has increased from an alarming total of five specimens to thirty-five animals and the site was removed from the List of World Heritage in danger at the sixteenth session of the Committee in 1992.
Threats for which the property was inscribed on the List of World Heritage in Danger
The Garamba National Park was inscribed again on the List of World Heritage in Danger in 1996 for the following reasons:
a) Increased poaching;
b) Pressure linked to the civil war, thereby threatening the flagship species of the property.1984 -1992
Threats for which the property was inscribed on the List of World Heritage in Danger
The Garamba National Park was listed for the first time on the List of World Heritage in Danger between 1984 and 1992 due to a serious decline in the population of white rhinos. With the success of the measures taken by the World Heritage Committee, IUCN, WWF, the Frankfurt Zoological Society and the national authorities, the rhino population has increased from an alarming total of five specimens to thirty-five animals and the site was removed from the List of World Heritage in danger at the sixteenth session of the Committee in 1992.
Desired state of conservation for the removal of the property from the List of World Heritage in Danger
Corrective measures identified
See Decision : 34 COM 7A.6 (Brasilia , 2010), http://whc.unesco.org/en/sessions/34COM/decisions
Requests Approved: 0
Total Amount Approved: 248,270USD
|2000||Emergency assistance to World Natural Heritage of the democratic Republic of the Congo||5,400 USD|
|1999||Support to Resident Staff of Garamba, Virunga, Kahuzi Biega National Parks and Okapi Faunal Reserve - the four World Heritage sites in Danger in the Democratic Republic of the Congo||30,000 USD|
|1994||Purchase of equipment for Garamba National Park (COMPLEMENT TO IA 642)||10,000 USD|
|1993||Purchase of equipment for Garamba National Park||10,000 USD|
|1992||Review of the state of conservation of World Heritage sites in Zaire and preparation of proposals for elaborating management plans for them||3,750 USD|
|1991||Purchase and shipment of 3 all-terrain motorcycles for patrolling teams in Garamba National Park||15,000 USD|
|1988||Purchase of 2 vehicles to continue the activities of the WWF/Frankfurt Zoological Society/World Heritage consortium to combat poaching at Garamba National Park||50,000 USD|
|1986||Purchase of equipment for the project to protect the rhinoceros population in Garamba National Park||20,000 USD|
|1985||Equipment for the project to protect the rhinoceros population in Garamba National Park||20,000 USD|
|1985||Contribution to the project for to rescue the white rhinoceros, Garamba National Park||25,000 USD|
|1983||Equipment for rescue programme for white rhino and elephants in Garamba National Park||40,000 USD|
|1980||Equipment for Garamba National Park||19,120 USD|
UNESCO Extra-budgetary Funds
Total amount provided to the property: Conservation Programme for the RDC World Heritage Properties ("RDC Programme") financed by the United Nations Foundation (UNF), Belgium and Italy: (2001-2005) approximately USD 400,000; from the Rapid Response Facility (totaling USD 60,000) training of guards and more recently replacement of communication equipment. Within the framework of the Third Phase, 450 000 USD have been allocated, by the Spanish Government, for the site.
Previous monitoring missions
2006: World Heritage Centre/IUCN monitoring mission,Several UNESCO missions in the framework of the «DRC Programme». 2010: World Heritage Centre/IUCN monitoring mission
Factors affecting the property identified in previous reports
a) Armed conflict and political instability;
b) Poaching by nationals and Sudanese;
c) Ill-adapted management capabilities.
Current conservation issues
The State Party submitted a report on the state of conservation of the property on 24 March 2011. Unfortunately, the report did not take into account the new updated corrective measures adopted by the World Heritage Committee at its 34th session, but contained only information on progress accomplished in the implementation of the corrective measures as adopted at its 30th session in 2006.
The report notes that while the security situation has improved substantially since early 2010, pockets of rebels of the Ugandan Lord’s Resistance Army (LRA) remain active in the region, both inside the park and in its southern periphery. The report further notes that the January 2009 attack on the park headquarters in Nagero is still negatively impacting the capacity of the park authorities to implement the corrective measures: as a result of the attack, part of the park staff resigned and a lot of equipment was lost (including an ultra light aircraft, vehicles and motor bikes). In addition more attention had to be given to ensure security of the 2 park stations, resulting in a reduction in anti-poaching efforts.
Despite these difficulties, efforts have been made to implement the corrective measures:
a) Urgently undertake at the highest level measures to halt the involvement in poaching activities of the Armed Forces of the Democratic Republic of the Congo (FARDC)
The report notes that some elements of the FARDC stationed around the park continue to be involved in poaching, in particular in the hunting areas surrounding the property. To address this issue, the General Directorate of the park authority, Institut Congolais pour la Conservation de la Nature (ICCN), was able to ensure that 3 Army Intelligence Officers were posted at the park, in order to provide information to the military command on poaching issues. As a result, some elements of the army involved in poaching could be identified, arrested and punished. The report notes that the current cooperation with the army brigade stationned in Dungu, which has a specific mandate to protect the park, has improved considerably over the past six months.
b) Ensure that the equipment of the guards of the management authority (ICCN) is adequate and serviceable, in particular with appropriate weapons and ammunition
The report notes that guard staff have the necessary field equipment, but that the efforts of ICCN to obtain weapons and ammunition have not yet yielded results. It notes that the lack of adequate weapons and sufficent ammunition is not only hampering anti-poaching activities, but also posing a security threat to park staff.
c) Strengthen disarmament efforts within the communities living around the property and at the same time improve the security situation of the region, if possible in cooperation with the United Nations Stabilization Mission in the Democratic Republic of the Congo (MONUSCO)
The report confirms that the widespread distribution of arms of war and ammunition in the villages around the property remains one of the main challenges for the park. It notes that while there is a MONUSCO brigade stationned in Dungu, they have not been involved in any disarmament efforts. However, as part of the anti-poaching efforts and with the assistance of the park’s intelligence network, park staff was able to confiscate some assault weapons as well as some locally made fire arms from the neighbouring communities.
d) Renew contacts with Sudan to strengthen transboundary cooperation with Lantoto National Park
The transboundary meeting with staff from Lantoto National Park in Sudan was postponed again till after the referendum on the independence of South Sudan, depending on political will and feasibility. However, the report notes that an in-principle agreement to cooperate exists between the two parties following the September 2008 meeting. The transboundary cooperation with the Lantoto park authorities in order to secure the northern area of the property is also included in the draft management plan.
e) Ensure a team of at least 200 operational guards through the rapid retirement of older guards and by the replacement of those not attaining the required level
The retirement of elderly staff is part of the national reform programme of ICCN. So far, retirements have not yet taken place in Garamba. However, to compensate for elderly staff that are no longer able to conduct the necessary field work, an additional 30 new guards have been recruited and trained in 2010, and the recruitment of a further 40 staff is foreseen in 2011. The new recruits continue to benefit from on-the-job training by a special instructor from Kenya. With this new recruitment, the number of operational staff in the property should reach 175 units by the end of 2011.
f) Gradually extend the area of surveillance to include the totality of the Park area, and at least 20% of the Hunting Reserves by 2015
The report notes that the intelligence and information network in the hunting areas and the locality of Faradfj was further strengthened and revealed different poaching networks. The report notes that 70 poachers were arrested in 2008 and 2009 but does not provide more recent figures. The report further notes that a new grader was bought to maintain the network of surveillance tracks in the property and the hunting areas. This will enable the park not only to increase its patrol coverage but also to intervene more rapidly. No information is provided about the extent of the area of the park or hunting areas covered by patrols. However, the report notes that anti-poaching activities slowed down as a result of the increased security needs to protect the park stations.
g) Establish a conservation strategy for the Hunting Reserves so that they may fully play their role of buffer zone and in view of their importance in the conservation of the Outstanding Universal Value of the property
The report does not provide information on the proposed conservation strategy. However, the draft management plan foresees the zoning of the park and the adjacent hunting areas, which should result in a stronger control of ICCN over the hunting areas, the development of a real partnership with the communities living in the hunting areas, the identification of priority areas for biodiverity and address the issue of illegal gold mining. To develop the zoning plan, it is planned to study the existing land use and inventory the biodiversity. The State Party report notes that studies are underway on the populations of chimpanzees in the hunting areas and as well as on the elephant movements between the property and the adjacent areas. As a result, anti-poaching patrols were organised in July – November, when many elephants are in the hunting areas. The report notes that the State Party is considering to propose an extension of the property to include part of the hunting areas in order to maintain the integrity of the property.
h) Strengthen the Community Conservation activities to improve relations with local communities
The report notes that relations with the local communities have improved significantly as a result of the ongoing Community Conservation programme, which receives support from Italy and Spain through UNESCO. In particular, the humanitarian aide which was provided to the neighbouring communities in 2010, following the LRA attacks in the region are reported to have been greatly appreciated by the communities. With this support, ICCN is rebuilding the school in Nagero which was destroyed after the rebels attack. In addition, the park authorities are undertaking several environmental educational campaigns for youth and local communities. The draft management plan also foresees a community conservation programme which includes expanding the participatory consultation network, strengthening awareness raising activities and supporting local development activities.
i) Complete and approve the management plan of the property and ensure the means for its implementation;
The draft management plan (2011-2015) has been finalized and submitted to the General Directorate of ICCN for further comment. It is expected that it will be validated before the end of this year. The World Heritage Centre received a copy of the draft management plan, which was prepared with support from IUCN and the World Heritage Centre.
j) Status of the northern white rhino and other wildlife populations
The wildlife survey, originally planned in May 2010 has been postponed as a result of lack of funding, but it is expected that the survey will take place in April this year. Results should be available by the end of May. The World Heritage Centre and IUCN consider the survey will not only provide a crucial input into finalizing the indicators which were developed by the 2010 monitoring mission for the Desired state of conservation for removal of the property from the List of World Heritage in Danger, but will also show if wildlife populations have stabilised.
The State Party report further notes that an ecological monitoring study on elephants is currently underway with support from Spain through UNESCO: 5 elephants were fitted with radio collars and their position is tracked via satellite. Preliminary results show the importance of the hunting areas for the integrity of the property. A study on the Congo giraffe is also reported to be undertaken.
The report further provides information on the continued efforts to locate any remaining northern white rhino, following the 2008 expert meeting on the survival of the subspecies. In spite of the extensive terrestrial and aerial searches , not a single animal was sighted since 2007. As noted in previous reports, the subspecies is now feared to have gone extinct. The World Heritage Centre and IUCN note that the 2010 reactive monitoring mission recommended abandoning further search efforts if no rhinos were sighted by March 2011, and considers that the upcoming aerial survey could provide a final opportunity. They note that cross breeding the last remaining captive northern white rhino currently hosted in Kenya with southern white rhino, with a view to conserving part of the genetic material and a possible future reintroduction in the property, could be considered. However, such a reintroduction should only be envisaged if the property is totally secured.
The World Heritage Centre and IUCN recommend that the World Heritage Committee welcome the improvement of the general security situation and the improved cooperation of park staff with the Democratic Republic of the Congo army stationed around the park, but remain concerned about the presence of pockets of LRA rebels in and around the property. They note that if the security situation continues to improve, efforts can be stepped up to implement the corrective measures.
The World Heritage Centre and IUCN further note that the results of the planned aerial survey will provide crucial information on the current status of the wildlife populations, which are the major justification for the property’s Outstanding Universal Value. The survey results will enable precise indicators for wildlife recovery to be set, finalize the Desired state of conservation for removal of the property from the List of World Heritage in Danger and set a more precise time frame for it.
The World Heritage Centre and IUCN therefore recommend to the World Heritage Committee to maintain the Garamba National Park on the List of World Heritage in Danger, and that the application of the Reinforced Monitoring Mechanism should be continued.
Decision Adopted: 35COM 7A.35
The World Heritage Committee,
1. Having examined Document WHC-11/35.COM/7A,
2. Recalling Decision 34 COM 7A.32, adopted at its 34th session (Brasilia, 2010),
3. Commends the State Party for the organization of the high-level meeting on the Conservation of the World Heritage properties in the Democratic Republic of the Congo, as requested by the World Heritage Committee at its 31st session (Christchurch, 2007);
4. Welcomes the Kinshasa Declaration in which the Prime Minister on behalf of the State Party makes the commitment to implement all the corrective measures adopted by the World Heritage Committee to rehabilitate the Outstanding Universal Value of the five World Heritage properties in Democratic Republic of the Congo, and to create the necessary conditions to allow for the implementation of the Strategic Action Plan proposed by the Congolese Park Authority ICCN;
5. Urges the State Party to ensure a full implementation of these commitments, in particular securing the properties, reinforcing the operational capacity of the Congolese Park Authority, reducing commercial poaching, stopping the illicit exploitation of natural resources, strengthening the efforts of peaceful evacuation of illegal occupants of protected areas as well as respecting the requirements of the World Heritage Convention, the national nature conservation law and the mining code;
6. Also urges the State Party to address a number of important threats to properties through a comprehensive approach involving the different relevant Ministries, in particular mining exploration and exploitation concessions attributed by the Ministry of Mines, the oil exploration concession granted by the Ministry for Hydrocarbons in Virunga National Park. The State Party must also address the issue of the illegal settlements in the corridor of Kahuzi-Biega, the relocation of the Nyaleke army training camp in Virunga National Park and the issue of the continued involvement of elements of the Congolese Army in illegal exploitation of the natural resources of the properties;
7. Calls upon the international community to continue its support for the efforts in securing and rehabilitating the World Heritage properties of the Democratic Republic of the Congo.
Decision Adopted: 35COM 7A.6
The World Heritage Committee,
1. Having examined Document WHC-11/35.COM/7A.Add;
2. Recalling Decision 34 COM 7A.6, adopted at its 34th session (Brasilia, 2010);
3. Welcomes the improvement of the general security situation and the improved cooperation of park staff with the Democratic Republic of the Congo (DRC) army stationed around the park, but remains concerned about the presence of some remaining groups of Lord's Resistance Army (LRA) rebels in and around the property;
4. Also welcomes the progress made in implementing the corrective measures updated by the World Heritage Committee at its 34th session (Brasilia, 2010) following the 2009 joint World Heritage Centre/IUCN reactive monitoring mission;
5. Reiterates its concern with regard to the possible extinction of the Northern White Rhinoceros of which there is no trace despite intensive surveys in the property and in the adjacent hunting areas, and considers that if its extinction is confirmed, other options, such as the possible cross breeding of the remaining captive animals with southern white rhino with a view to the possible future reintroduction, should be envisaged;
6. Urges the State Party, in view of the improving security situation, to step up the efforts to implement the corrective measures to rehabilitate the Outstanding Universal Value of the property;
7. Requests the State Party, based on the results of the forthcoming survey and in consultation with the World Heritage Centre and the Advisory Bodies to finalize the Desired state of conservation for the removal of the property from the List of World Heritage in Danger and update the required timeframe, for examination by the World Heritage Committee at its 36th session in 2012;
8. Also requests the State Party to submit to the World Heritage Centre, by 1 February 2012, a report on the state of conservation of the property, including an update on the progress achieved in the implementation of the corrective measures, for examination by the World Heritage Committee at its 36th session in 2012;
9. Decides to continue the application of the Reinforced monitoring mechanism to the property;
10. Also decides to retain Garamba National Park (Democratic Republic of the Congo) on the List of World Heritage in Danger.
Decision Adopted: 35COM 8C.2
The World Heritage Committee,
1. Following the examination of the state of conservation reports of properties inscribed on the List of World Heritage in Danger (WHC-11/35.COM/7A, WHC-11/35.COM/7A.Add and WHC-11/35.COM/7A.Add.Corr),
2. Decides to maintain the following properties on the List of World Heritage in Danger: