State of Conservation
Factors affecting the property in 2003*
- Human resources
- Illegal activities
- Legal framework
- Management systems/ management plan
- Other Threats:
Urgent problems of conservation
Factors* affecting the property identified in previous reports
- Inadequate protective legislation;
- Inadequately staffed national protection agency;
- No permanent boundaries established and defined buffer zones;
- Need for monitoring and coordination of the international conservation effort
International Assistance: requests for the property until 2003
Requests approved: 4
Total amount approved : 113,595 USD
|1998||Hydrological and topographical studies for the Moats of ... (Approved)||28,595 USD|
|1994||Consolidation of the Pre Rupt monument in Angkor (Approved)||50,000 USD|
|1993||Financial contribution for the installation of an alarm ... (Approved)||20,000 USD|
|1992||Mission to prepare a Tentative List and a nomination ... (Approved)||15,000 USD|
Missions to the property until 2003**
September 1997: legal expert mission
Conservation issues presented to the World Heritage Committee in 2003
Other UNESCO Sector or Field Office:
CLT/CH and UNESCO Field Offices:
Following the decision of the World Heritage Committee at its 26th session (June 2002), the Government of Cambodia submitted on 13 March 2003, a progress report with technical details on all activities carried out between 1992 and 2002, together with the National Periodic Report to be reviewed within the framework of the Regional Periodic Reporting Exercise.
All information has been transmitted to ICOMOS for review and information. The following conservation activities of the Authority for the Protection of the Site and Development of the Region of Angkor (APSARA) and other international teams between 1992 and 2002 were presented:
A. Conservation activities carried out by APSARA:
Maintenance and cleaning: Two maintenance teams were established for the site. One team is composed of 300 staff members and is responsible for the cleaning of the surfaces of the monuments and the immediate surroundings. Another team composed of 20 people, is responsible for the cleaning of the buildings, removing plants, moss and parasites growing on the monument structures. A Monuments Conservation Service has been created which is responsible for: the maintenance of monuments and important restoration work; implementation of projects, and follow-up and monitoring of the international operator’s work.
Security, prevention and protection: Since 1999, Angkor Vat has been protected by a security team. Its staff has increased from 16 to 610 persons at present. The on-site protection, prevention and site surveillance has been secured by the creation of a special police commissariat for heritage in October 1997 employing 520 police officers. Currently, it has a total staff of 250.
B. On-site Conservation activities undertaken by the Cambodian and International Teams (9 international conservation teams have on-site staff totalling 583).
· Cambodia: APSARA/DMA (Department of Monuments and Archeology)
· France: EFEO (Ecole Française d’Extrème Orient)
· Japan: JSA (Japanese Government Team for Safeguarding Angkor), Sophia University, Nara Institute for the Protection of Cultural Properties
· Italy: IgeS (Ingegneria Geotechnica e Structurale)
· Germany: GACP (German APSARA Conservation Project)
· USA: WMF (World Monument Fund) -Switzerland: SDC (Swiss Development and Co-operation)
· China: CSA (Chinese Safeguarding Angkor)
· Indonesia: ITASA (Indonesian Technical Assistant for Safeguarding Angkor)
· Hungary: RAF (Royal Angkor Foundation)
· India: ASI (Archaeological Survey of India)
A total amount of US$ 4,340,659 was provided by UNESCO/Japan Trust Funds for the Conservation of the Royal Plaza (Prasat Suor Prat and its terrace), the Bayon (elaboration of a Master Plan) and Angkor Wat (Northern library inside the outermost enclosure) - Phase III –2003-2005. In the framework of both long-term and short-term training programmes, training activities have continually been carried out by the Japanese Government Team for Safeguarding Angkor.
An amount of US$ 48,195 was provided under UNESCO/Japan Funds-In-Trust for the production of a CD-Rom on the International Symposium for the Preservation of the Bayon Temple (2002-2003). This CD-Rom contains proceedings of the previous International Symposium for the Preservation of the Bayon Temple organized between 1996 and 2001. Also, an amount of US$ 16,183 was provided under Japan Trust Funds for the production of the international versions of a series of videos on Angkor.
Funds were provided from Japan Funds-In-Trust (US$ 27,459) and French Funds-in-Trust (45,682 Euros) to support the International Co-ordination Committee for the Safeguarding and the Development of the Historic Site of Angkor (ICC).
The production of a documentary film and publication on 10 years of international assistance for the safeguarding and development of the historic site of Angkor was co-financed by Japanese and French Funds-In-Trust, which will be presented during the Inter-governmental Conference to be held in Paris in November 2003.
The Italian Funds-In-Trust (US$ 227,469) supported the restoration of the Pre Rup Temple – Phase III – 2003-2004. The project aims to complete the restoration of the most badly damaged towers of the temple and to gather information on the state of conservation of the other building structures. On-site training will be organized to transfer the acquired experiences to the local technicians involved in the project. Phase III constitutes the final phase of this project.
The French Tour Operator, ACCOR Group, provided support for a project on the consolidation and development of Bat Chum Temple in 2003 to consolidate the three towers and to clean the surrounding moats of the Temple. This project is being implemented by APSARA.
As stated in the National Periodic Report submitted by the Government of Cambodia, the monuments of Angkor are in varying states of conservation. Since inscription on the World Heritage List and the List of World Heritage in Danger in 1992, more than 20 major conservation and restoration projects have been undertaken at the site. However, due to the vastness of the property, there are still many monuments in need of conservation attention.
Meanwhile, the property attracts a growing number of visitors. Between 2001-2002, international tourists at the site increased by 29% from 208,472 to 269,155. To enable the local communities to absorb such rapid social changes and to draw out positive benefits from the tourism industry while simultaneously conserve the values of the property, a project entitled “Training of APSARA cultural mediators” has been organized by UNESCO and APSARA in close co-operation with the Ministry of Tourism.
Decisions adopted by the Committee in 2003
The World Heritage Committee,
1. Commends the Government of Cambodia and particularly the Authority for the Protection of the Site and Development of the Region of Angkor (APSARA) for submitting a detailed report to the Committee on the major conservation activities carried out at the property with the generous technical and financial contributions from Japan, France, Italy, Germany, United States of America, Switzerland, China, Indonesia, Hungary, India and private groups and foundations such as ACCOR and the World Monument Fund;
2. Encourages APSARA to:
(a) Continue the implementation of the existing management plan as appropriate;
(b) Review the management plan to ensure that tourism development is adequately controlled to mitigate negative impact upon the outstanding universal value of the property and the local communities;
(c) Reinforce on-site legal provisions for heritage protection together with their administrative measures for implementation of such provisions;
3. Recommends to the State Party the strengthening of co-operation between APSARA and the provincial authorities to improve preventive measures against on-site looting and theft;
4. Requests the UNESCO Secretariat, the Advisory Bodies and other international partners to continue to support the national and local authorities in implementing the above-mentioned action by providing appropriate international assistance;
5. Requests the State Party to provide a report to the World Heritage Centre by 1 February 2004 on the state of conservation of the property for examination by the World Heritage Committee at its 28th session in 2004, to enable it to decide whether or not to retain the property on the List of World Heritage in Danger;
6. Decides to retain the property on the List of World Heritage in Danger.
Properties maintained on the List of World Heritage in Danger
The World Heritage Committee,
1. Following examination of state of conservation reports of properties on the List of World Heritage in Danger (WHC-03/27.COM/7A),;
2. Decides to maintain the following properties on the List of World Heritage in Danger:
- Minaret and Archaeological Remains of Jam, Afghanistan (27 COM 7A.21)
- Butrint, Albania (27 COM 7A.26 )
- Tipasa, Algeria (27 COM 7A.17)
- Royal Palaces of Abomey, Benin (27 COM 7A.15)
- Angkor, Cambodia (27 COM 7A.22)
- Manovo-Gounda St. Floris National Park, Central African Republic (27 COM 7A.12 )
- Mount Nimba Strict Nature Reserve, Côte d'Ivoire/Guinea (27 COM 7A.4)
- Virunga National Park, Democratic Republic of the Congo (27 COM 7A.2)
- Garamba National Park, Democratic Republic of the Congo (27 COM 7A.2)
- Kahuzi-Biega National Park, Democratic Republic of the Congo (27 COM 7A.2)
- Okapi Wildlife Reserve, Democratic Republic of the Congo (27 COM 7A.2)
- Salonga National Park, Democratic Republic of the Congo (27 COM 7A.2)
- Sangay National Park, Ecuador (27 COM 7A.13)
- Abu Mena, Egypt (27 COM 7A.18)
- Simien National Park, Ethiopia (27 COM 7A.3)
- Rio Platano Biosphere Reserve, Honduras (27 COM 7A.14)
- Manas Wildlife Sanctuary, India (27 COM 7A.9)
- Group of Monuments at Hampi, India (27 COM 7A.23)
- Old City of Jerusalem & its Walls (27COM7A.29)
- Timbuktu, Mali (27 COM 7A.16)
- Air & Ténéré Natural Reserves, Niger (27 COM 7A.5)
- Bahla Fort, Oman (27 COM 7A.19)
- Fort and Shalamar Gardens in Lahore, Pakistan (27 COM 7A.242)
- Chan Chan Archaeological Zone, Peru (27 COM 7A.28)
- Rice Terraces of the Philippine Cordilleras, Philippines (27 COM 7A.25)
- Djoudj National Bird Sanctuary, Senegal (27 COM 7A.6)
- Ichkeul National Park, Tunisia (27 COM 7A.8)
- Rwenzori Mountains National Park, Uganda (27 COM 7A.7)
- Everglades National Park, United States of America (27 COM 7A.11)
- Historic Town of Zabid, Yemen (27 COM 7A.20)
Draft 27 COM 7 (a) 22
The World Heritage Committee,
1. Commends the Government of Cambodia and particularly the Authority for the Protection of the Site and Development of the Region of Angkor (APSARA) for submitting a detailed report to the Committee on the major conservation activities carried out at the site with the generous technical and financial contributions from Japan, France, Italy, Germany, USA, Switzerland, China, Indonesia, Hungary, India and private groups such as ACCOR;
2. Encourages APSARA to: a. Continue the implementation of the existing management plans as appropriate, and harmonize and revise these plans to include adequate measures to control tourism development to mitigate negative impact upon the heritage values (tangible and intangible) and the local communities; b. Reinforce on-site legal provisions for heritage protection together with their administrative measures for implementation;
3. Recommends that the State Party strengthens co-operation between APSARA and the provincial authorities to improve preventive measures against on-site looting and theft;
4. Requests UNESCO, the Advisory Bodies and other international partners to continue co-operation with the national and local authorities to implement the above-mentioned action by providing appropriate international assistance;
5. Requests the State Party to provide a report on the state of conservation of the property to be examined by the 28th session of the World Heritage Committee;
6. Decides to retain the site on the List of World Heritage in Danger.
The threats indicated are listed in alphabetical order; their order does not constitute a classification according to the importance of their impact on the property.
Furthermore, they are presented irrespective of the type of threat faced by the property, i.e. with specific and proven imminent danger (“ascertained danger”) or with threats which could have deleterious effects on the property’s Outstanding Universal Value (“potential danger”).