State of Conservation (SOC)
Historic Town of Zabid (2002)
Desired state of conservation for the removal of the property from the List of World Heritage in Danger
UNESCO Extra-Budgetary Funds
International Assistance granted to the property
Total Amount Ap proved:114,167USD
|2001||Historic City of Zabid (APPROVAL OF THE SECOND HALF-NOT ...||25,000 USD|
|2001|| Historic City of Zabid (APPROVAL OF THE FIRST HALF-PARTIALLY ...
Reapproval: 22 Jan, 2002 (n°1486 - 31,918 USD)
|1999||Exposition of the photographs of the architectures in Yemen||167 USD|
|1998||Construction of the furnace for making mud bricks, a restoration ...||19,000 USD|
|1994||Preparation of a publication on Zabid||15,000 USD|
|1994||Urgent protection works in the Historical Town of Zabid||30,000 USD|
November 1999: UNESCO mission; May 2001: joint World Heritage Centre/ICOMOS mission ; September-October 2001: World Heritage Centre mission ; February 2002: World Hertiage Centre experts mission
Factors* affecting the property identified in previous reports
- Renovations seriously threatening the authenticity and integrity of the Great Mosque
- No system for the evacuation of waste water
- Increase of the permanent humidity of the ground, posing the threat of erosion to the brick walls
- Need for a safeguarding and urbanism plan
- Lack of traditional materials (noura bricks)
Lack of coordination between the activities of the different actors and donors.
Current conservation issues
The condition of the Town remains unchanged, but the work on the drainage system, the cleaning and creation of a refuse collection system and the restoration of the Souk and certain monuments are planned and should commence in May/June 2002.
The urban conservation plan is being studied by the Ministry of Public Works and urban studies and by the Dutch project UCHP. The study is progressing very slowly due to the delay experienced in the inventory of the construction work that is only partially completed.
Concerning the urban plan and rehabilitation operations, in February 2002, architect restorers were sent on mission to Zabid by the World Heritage Centre to study the state of the monuments, the urban typology and the built heritage. The following recommendations were made: the mission insisted upon the urgent need to rapidly finalise the urban conservation plan and the need to define the regulations in order to proceed with the conservation/rehabilitation operations of the historic tissue, the modalities for the use of public space and in particular the standards concerning control of demolitions, reconstructions and the management of existing buildings.
The lack of the traditional brick (noura) necessary for the restoration and rehabilitation work in the Zabid region is another constraint. In 1999, the Centre assisted the authorities to build a traditional brick oven. For several reasons, and specifically an accident causing the death of a man, the oven was never exploited.
Consequently, the mission recommended: 1) the immediate dispatch of experts to the site by the Centre to formulate a preliminary urban conservation plan to serve as a basis for the final plan and to define the regulations and preliminary orientations for the future urban regulations of the Historic Town; 2) immediate exploitation, after control of the material, of the existing brick oven and the construction of two other ovens financed by UCHP (Dutch project), to respond to the needs of rehabilitation activities which will very shortly recommence.
Concerning the institutional framework, the delay incurred in the implementation of the studies, of “quick-Scan”, the brick oven and the urban conservation plan stem from internal difficulties at the GOPHCY (General Organization for the Preservation of Historic Cities of Yemen). The work of this Organization was interrupted for several months by transfer of high-level personnel and established teams, impairing its capabilities in carrying out its role as relay for the Centre and coordinator responsible for operations at site. Fortunately, the situation has improved and the Centre hopes to install a better and more efficient cooperation with the GOPHCY.
The World Heritage Centre will organize an expert mission during May 2002 to bring together all the partners involved in the safeguarding of Zabid and define with them clear modalities to coordinate actions and the division of tasks and draw up a clear timetable for the implementation of the activities. At the same time, the Centre shall assign a consultant for a preliminary study of the urban conservation plan. This plan should foresee the immediate implementation of the first reconstruction activities prior to the commencement of the other planned works. This study will be financed from the World Heritage Centre Netherlands Funds-in-Trust.
The World Heritage Committee,
Link to the decision
1. Recommends the Yemeni authorities to strengthen, in close consultation with the Centre, the coordination of all efforts for the safeguarding of the Historic Town of Zabid;
2. Requests the Centre to finalize the outline of the Urban Conservation Plan and technical specifications for the repair of residential buildings, in view of a clear distribution of roles and responsibilities among the responsible Yemeni authorities and the international community of donors;
3. Encourages the State Party to establish at the site a Technical Unit, to act as a partner for the local authorities, UNESCO and other international players in the finalization and implementation of the Urban Conservation Plan;4. Decides to retain the site on the List of World Heritage in Danger.
The Committee may wish to examine at the time of its session additional information which may be available following the May 2002 mission, and adopt a decision as appropriate.
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Detailed List of SOC reports
Lack of conservation measures
Inscription on the Danger ListYear: 2000
Threats to the Site:
- Serious deterioration of the built heritage (a high percentage of the residential houses being replaced by concrete and multi-storey buildings);
- The remaining houses in the city are rapidly deteriorating, due to the prevailing low income of the inhabitants;
- Since the souq activities have been transferred outside the city, the ancient souq is almost empty and free from any type of activity and the shops are falling apart;
- The traditional economic role of the city has vanished;
- The city in general, is lacking any conservation and rehabilitation strategies.
The Yemeni government asked for Zabid to be inscribed on the List of World Heritage in Danger to facilitate its preservation.
The threats indicated are listed in alphabetical order; their order does not constitute a classification according to the importance of their impact on the property.
Furthermore, they are presented irrespective of the type of threat faced by the property, i.e. with specific and proven imminent danger (“ascertained danger”) or with threats which could have deleterious effects on the property’s Outstanding Universal Value (“potential danger”).