State of Conservation (SOC)
Historic Town of Zabid (2000)
Desired state of conservation for the removal of the property from the List of World Heritage in Danger
UNESCO Extra-Budgetary Funds
International Assistance granted to the property
Total Amount Ap proved:64,167USD
|1999||Exposition of the photographs of the architectures in Yemen||167 USD|
|1998||Construction of the furnace for making mud bricks, a restoration ...||19,000 USD|
|1994||Preparation of a publication on Zabid||15,000 USD|
|1994||Urgent protection works in the Historical Town of Zabid||30,000 USD|
November 1999: UNESCO mission
Factors* affecting the property identified in previous reports
- Renovations seriously threatening the authenticity and integrity of the Great Mosque
- No system for the evacuation of waste water
- Increase of the permanent humidity of the ground, posing the threat of erosion to the brick walls
Current conservation issues
A UNESCO mission visited Zabid in November 1999 and informed the World Heritage Centre that the city is in a bad state of conservation. In July 2000 the consultant in charge of the periodic reports, discussed the problem with the GOPHCY (General Organization for the Preservation of the Historic Cities of Yemen) who agreed that the situation is totally out of their control and that an international action will be necessary to help seek a solution.
The Yemeni Authorities are presently discussing at the highest level, the ways of informing the Committee about this situation and eventually requesting for the inclusion of the City in the List of the World Heritage in Danger.
Since the date of nomination, it has been difficult for the Government to give the City top priorities due to the country's difficult economic and social situation.
Due to a lack of conservation measures, the City is now facing huge threats that are endangering its authenticity and integrity:
· Serious deterioration of the built-up heritage (40% of the residential houses being replaced by compact cement and multi-storey buildings)
· The remains of the houses in the City are rapidly deteriorating, due to the prevailing low income of the inhabitants
· Since the suq activities have been transferred outside the City, the suq is almost empty and free from any type of activity and the shops are falling apart
· The traditional economic role of the City as the centre of its micro-region has vanished
· The city in general, is lacking any conservation and rehabilitation concepts.
By reviewing all these elements, the mission was of the opinion that the situation of the city corresponds to the following criteria of danger: Ascertained danger: (b), (c) and (d) and Potential danger: (b) and (c).
Analysis and Conclusion
Link to the decision
VIII.31 Historic City of Zabid (Yemen)
The Committee recalled the report on the state of conservation of the Historic City of Zabid, examined by the Bureau at its twenty-fourth extraordinary session that included information on the State Party's request to inscribe the site on the List of World Heritage in Danger. ICOMOS fully supported the findings and recommendations of the UNESCO monitoring mission undertaken in 1999 and the request by the State Party that the site be inscribed on the World Heritage in Danger in view of the serious condition of the historic buildings within the property.
The Committee decided to inscribe the Historic City of Zabid on the List of World Heritage in Danger. The Committee requested the World Heritage Centre and ICOMOS to organize a mission composed of multidisciplinary experts in order to evaluate the situation and recommend further actions.
Link to the decision
X.4 Following the review of the state of conservation reports and at the recommendations of the Bureau, the Committee decided to inscribe the following natural cultural properties on the List of World Heritage in Danger:
- Fort and Shalamar Gardens of Lahore (Pakistan)
- Djoudj National Bird Sanctuary (Senegal)
- Historic City of Zabid (Yemen)
X.5 The Committee did not recommend the deletion of any properties from the List of World Heritage in Danger.
The Bureau is requested to examine additional information that may be available at the time of its session and take the appropriate decision thereupon.
The Bureau may wish to ask the World Heritage Centre and ICOMOS to send a multidisciplinary team of experts to the site in order to evaluate the situation and to assist the national authorities to draw up a programme of corrective action.
View inscribed site documents, nomination file, reports, decisions, ...
SOC Reports2014 2013 2012 2011 2010 2009 2008 2007 2006 2005 2004 2003 2002 2001 2000 1996
Detailed List of SOC reports
Lack of conservation measures
Inscription on the Danger ListYear: 2000
Threats to the Site:
- Serious deterioration of the built heritage (a high percentage of the residential houses being replaced by concrete and multi-storey buildings);
- The remaining houses in the city are rapidly deteriorating, due to the prevailing low income of the inhabitants;
- Since the souq activities have been transferred outside the city, the ancient souq is almost empty and free from any type of activity and the shops are falling apart;
- The traditional economic role of the city has vanished;
- The city in general, is lacking any conservation and rehabilitation strategies.
The Yemeni government asked for Zabid to be inscribed on the List of World Heritage in Danger to facilitate its preservation.
The threats indicated are listed in alphabetical order; their order does not constitute a classification according to the importance of their impact on the property.
Furthermore, they are presented irrespective of the type of threat faced by the property, i.e. with specific and proven imminent danger (“ascertained danger”) or with threats which could have deleterious effects on the property’s Outstanding Universal Value (“potential danger”).