State of Conservation (SOC)
Everglades National Park (1998)
Desired state of conservation for the removal of the property from the List of World Heritage in Danger
UNESCO Extra-Budgetary Funds
International Assistance granted to the property
Total Amount Ap proved:0USD
Factors* affecting the property identified in previous reports
- Agricultural, industrial and urban developments altering the natural systems;
- Pollution of the water (nutrients and mercury);
- Hurricane in August 1992
Current conservation issues
At its last session (Naples, 1997), the Committee noted significant progress made in the state of conservation of this site following generous Federal and State allocations of financial and human resources. However, the Committee noted that the State Party was of the view that the site is still under threat and hence decided to retain the site in the List of World Heritage in Danger. The State Party has informed the Centre that it will provide an update on the state of conservation of Everglades in time for the twenty-second session of the Committee.
Analysis and Conclusion
Link to the decision
VII.12 Everglades National Park (United States of America)
At its last session (Naples, 1997), the Committee noted significant progress made in the state of conservation of this site following generous Federal and State allocations of financial and human resources. The Delegate of the United States of America provided a detailed state of conservation report on this site, which outlined important measures undertaken to ensure continuing progress in the restoration of this site. In particular, the Committee noted the following:
(i) US$ 26 million worth of land purchases have been completed in the East Everglades Expansion Area; an additional US$ 40 million are needed to finalize the total of 109,000 acres of additional land purchases foreseen as part of the programme to expand the total extent of the Everglades National Park;
(ii) The western population of the cape sable seaside sparrow has suffered from abnormally prolonged wet periods which had been created by water management structures that artificially keep waters in the western Shark Slough in order to keep the eastern parts dry. Flooding denies the sparrow access to its nesting sites, found only in the transitional grasslands of the western Shark Slough. Restoration of water flows to the eastern Shark Slough is a high priority measure for the restoration of the overall Everglades ecosystem and will serve the interests of the sparrow as well. Everglades National Park and the Fish and Wildlife Services are planning water diversions to the Eastern Shark Slough. Fortunate dry weather conditions coincided with the nesting season of the sparrow in April 1998 and enabled breeding success comparable to the previous year;
(iii) Legislation has been introduced in the US Congress that would permanently retain the presence of the Miccosukee Tribe within the Everglades National Park. Any agreement for providing a site for the Tribe's continued practice of its living culture may come into conflict with the restoration of water flows through the eastern Shark Slough (where the Miccosukee Tribe is located), considered to be a essential measure for the restoration of the overall Everglades ecosystem.
The Delegate of the United States informed the Committee that despite significant progress in acquiring land, and allocating financial and human resources necessary for the restoration of the Everglades, the US Government believes that the site continues to be in Danger. In response to a question raised by IUCN as to how the State Party would determine when the site could be removed from the List of World Heritage in Danger, the United States Delegate pointed that success measures to determine effects of the restoration activities are being developed and will be reported to the Committee in due course.
The Committee agreed to the request of the State Party and decided to retain this site in the List of World Heritage in Danger.
The Committee may review new information expected to be available at the time of its twenty-second session and decide whether or not this site should be retained in the List of World Heritage in Danger.
United States of America
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Detailed List of SOC reports
Inscription on the Danger ListYear: 2010
Threats to the Site:
The property was re-inscribed on the List of World Heritage in Danger, on the request of the State Party, due to concerns that the property's aquatic ecosystem continues to deteriorate, in particular as a result of:
- Alterations of the hydrological regime (quantity, timing, and distribution of Shark Slough inflows);
- Adjacent urban and agricultural growth (flood protection and water supply requirements that affect the property's resources by lowering water levels);
- Increased nutrient pollution from upstream agricultural activities;
- Protection and management of FloridaBay resulting in significant reduction of both marine and estuarine biodiverstiy.
Year: 1993 -2007
Threats to the Site:
The site was inscribed on the List of the World Heritage in Danger in 1993 after the park's Superintendent informed the Committee of extensive damage to Everglades' ecology due to a number of causes including:
- nearby urban growth,
- pollution from fertilisers,
- mercury poisoning of fish and wildlife,
- a fall in water levels caused by flood protection measures.
In addition, on 24 August 1992, Hurricane Andrew altered much of Florida Bay and its ecological systems and destroyed the park's visitor centre.
The threats indicated are listed in alphabetical order; their order does not constitute a classification according to the importance of their impact on the property.
Furthermore, they are presented irrespective of the type of threat faced by the property, i.e. with specific and proven imminent danger (“ascertained danger”) or with threats which could have deleterious effects on the property’s Outstanding Universal Value (“potential danger”).