1.         Island of Mozambique (Mozambique) (C 599)

Year of inscription on the World Heritage List  1991

Criteria  (iv)(vi)

Year(s) of inscription on the List of World Heritage in Danger  N/A

Previous Committee Decisions  see page http://whc.unesco.org/en/list/599/documents/

International Assistance

Requests approved: 0 (from 1994-1995)
Total amount approved: USD 55,000
For details, see page http://whc.unesco.org/en/list/599/assistance/

UNESCO Extra-budgetary Funds


Previous monitoring missions

July 1995: UNESCO expert mission

Factors affecting the property identified in previous reports

Illustrative material  see page http://whc.unesco.org/en/list/599/

Conservation issues presented to the World Heritage Committee in 1995

  1. Background

At the eighteenth session of the World Heritage Committee, a report on the state of conservation of Ihla de Mozambique was presented. The report was part of the Systematic Monitoring Exercise, undertaken in collaboration with the, then existent, UNDP/Unesco Regional Project for Cultural, Urban and Environmental Heritage, Lima (1991-1994). Subsequently, the Government of Mozambique requested a mission, whose task was to:

The World Heritage Centre, in consultation with the authorities, fielded a mission to Mozambique in July 1995. The main findings are summarized below.

2. Present situation

The economic base of the Island remains precarious - reflecting the overall situation in the country. The cyclone in 1993 has seriously affected the built-architecture and urban fabric of the Island. The Ihla always had two kinds of distinct habitations (North : stone/lime and the city of Straw-Macuti); they are in precarious conditions. Self-help projects in Macuti City and some parts of the Stone City are underway. The infrastructure of the Island in water/sanitation, drinking water, sewage system, adequate electricity - energy, transport and communication is below the poverty line. So is the situation of ill-housing, including some squatters in the Stone City, environmental problems on beaches (waste disposal and defecation on the beaches); garbage collection. The human element of the Island is enthusiastic - good - willing, with a desire to rehabilitate their Island and conserve their heritage.

Some bilateral projects OIKOS (EU) for boat construction, water - sanitation (Switzerland - Canada - France) are in their initial stages with relatively good results.

3. Funding

All funding for the Island at present is international. No substantial matching fund in cash or even in kind are available. The mission met with the donor community. Generally there is a "Donor Fatigue" and set of priorities. However, with the Prime Minister's statement of political will following the mission's visit, there is good hope for joint ventures with the Mozambique authorities for a future Sustainable - Urban Integral Cultural Heritage Project with different components.

As to Monitoring, with the exception of the systematic exercise carried out in 1994, there is no monitoring in place and there cannot be - until such time that a management/project execution office is put in place in the Island in situ.

4. Outcome of the mission

The consultants have provided the outline of a programme which includes:

1) Physical restoration and maintenance programme of the Cultural Heritage;

2) Economic sustainability;

3) Rehabilitation of the human settlement;

4) Infrastructure, habitat, environment;

5) Education/training of local artisans.

This "Comprehensive - Integral - Sustainable Conservation and Rehabilitation" Agenda has to be set up for the Island (1995­2000), and funded by external donors. The mission already identified a series of projects within the Integral Conservation Programme. These include :

a) The urban pattern gardens, squares and street furniture, sea-front and beaches.

b) Monuments and Public Buildings (Restoration and readaptive use)

c) Infrastructure (water, sewage, electricity, environment, transport, etc).

Analysis and Conclusions of the World Heritage Centre, ICOMOS and ICCROM

The Bureau may wish to recommend the Committee to adopt the following:

"The Committee requested the World Heritage Centre to follow up with the Government of Mozambique on the results of the mission, and ensure that detailed architectural drawings are prepared in order to submit these to donor countries for small-scale restoration projects (funds are available for this action). The Committee also encouraged the Government of Mozambique to submit a technical cooperation request in order to prepare detailed projects with cost estimates for the restoration of each monument and the basic infrastructure of the Island."

Decision Adopted: 19 COM VII.C.2.42/46

VII.42 Ihle de Mozambique (Mozambique)

The Committee was informed that the World Heritage Centre undertook a mission last July in order to:

- define the necessary measures to prepare an integrated rehabilitation programme for the Ihle;
- establish the list of urgent conservation work.

The report of this mission was discussed last November in Paris, with the Minister of Culture who asked the Director- General of UNESCO for a Funds-in-Trust to be administered in Maputo by a steering Committee. The UNESCO Representative in Mozambique would be a member of this Committee. The Mozambique authorities and UNESCO plans to allocate resources which will be used to implement the integrated rehabilitation programme defined in the report.

The Committee noted the creation of a Fund-in-Trust to finance conservation projects in the framework of the rehabilitation programme of the Ihla as prepared by UNESCO. The Committee requested the World Heritage Centre to prepare in collaboration with the authorities of Mozambique conservation projects with cost estimates in order to submit them to potential donors.