1.         Ruins of Kilwa Kisiwani and Ruins of Songo Mnara (United Republic of Tanzania) (C 144)

Year of inscription on the World Heritage List  1981

Criteria  (iii)

Year(s) of inscription on the List of World Heritage in Danger   2004-2014

Threats for which the property was inscribed on the List of World Heritage in Danger

Deterioration and decay leading to the collapse of the historical and archaeological structures for which the property was inscribed 

Desired state of conservation for the removal of the property from the List of World Heritage in Danger

Adopted, see page http://whc.unesco.org/en/decisions/1586

Corrective measures identified

Adopted, see page http://whc.unesco.org/en/decisions/1586

Timeframe for the implementation of the corrective measures

Adopted, see page http://whc.unesco.org/en/decisions/1586

Previous Committee Decisions  see page http://whc.unesco.org/en/list/144/documents/

International Assistance

Requests approved: 0 (from 1983-2009)
Total amount approved: USD 56,053
For details, see page http://whc.unesco.org/en/list/144/assistance/

UNESCO Extra-budgetary Funds

Total amount granted: USD 201,390 from the Norwegian Funds-in-Trust for UNESCO rehabilitation project

Previous monitoring missions

February 2004: ICOMOS mission; June 2008 and March 2009: Joint World Heritage Centre / ICOMOS reactive monitoring missions

Factors affecting the property identified in previous reports

Illustrative material  see page http://whc.unesco.org/en/list/144/

Conservation issues presented to the World Heritage Committee in 2013

On 7 February 2013, a report on the state of conservation of the property was submitted by the State Party. The report includes information on the current conditions as well as a detailed chart on the progress made towards the removal of the property from the List of World Heritage in Danger. Additional information submitted includes the project for Integrated Preservation at Kilwa Kisiwani (Part of the Large Grants Program 2011 for World Monuments Fund) and an Interim report on the Study of the Coastal Environment in the Kilwa Kisiwani area.

a)         Management system

The report mentions that the updating of the management plan will be finalised by June 2013, as part of the Integrated Preservation Project. In order to secure resources, discussions for collaborative endeavours are being carried out with the World Monuments Fund, CRAterre, Communauté d’agglomération du Pays Rochefortais (CAPR) and the Aga Khan Foundation. These would address both conservation concerns but also issues pertaining to heritage development and capacity building within the local community to ensure a sustained approach to conservation and development.

b)         Clarification of boundaries and delineation of buffer zone of the property

Limited progress has been achieved on this issue to date. However, the State Party reports that the process of surveying the boundaries of the property will be completed by April 2013, through a contract between the World Monuments Fund and Ardhi University (ARU) in Dar es Salaam. As for the potential extension of the property, this will be examined once the conditions for removal from the List of World Heritage in Danger are met and when conditions of the Kilwa Kivinje and Sanje ya Kati are improved through the documentation and restoration programme. 

c)         Land Use Plan

The State Party reports that the process began by undertaking a social economic survey and holding two stakeholder meetings. The plan will be completed by April 2013, contingent upon the approval by the Ministry of Natural Resources of the contract between the World Monuments Fund and ARU.

d)        Progress made in the implementation of the corrective measures

Rehabilitation of heritage monuments

The State Party reports than significant progress has been made in the restoration of heritage monuments and expects that by June 2013 the benchmark of 70% of buildings rehabilitated will be met. It is considered that with the sustained interventions, most monuments are in good state of conservation, a condition that will be preserved through a maintenance plan. Since capacity building has been addressed through the implementation of diverse projects, there is now a conservation team with the adequate skills to continue these actions.

Establishment of boundaries and extension of the property and Land Use Plan

As aforementioned, it is expected that these corrective measures will be fully addressed by May 2013.

Fully established on-site administrative structures

The State Party reports that the property has a proper administrative structure with four sections under the site manager. To date, it is functional and has simplified management and distribution of responsibilities.

Halt sea-wave action

Numerous actions have been implemented to control the active erosion near the monuments; therefore the area that was treated is stable. Within the framework of the World Monuments Fund project, a study on the coastal environments in Kilwa Kisiwani was carried out in April 2012 to identify risks and identify measures for their control and mitigation. The implementation of proposed actions will require the collaboration of local and international development partners. In addition, a maintenance plan is needed for the current sea walls. The State Party recognises that this will need long-term attention, including measures along the Malinda and Garza sea front and the Makutani monument complexes.

Analysis and Conclusions of the World Heritage Centre, ICOMOS and ICCROM

The World Heritage Centre and the Advisory Bodies note with satisfaction the significant progress that has been made by the State Party in addressing the conditions that warranted the inclusion of the property in the List of World Heritage in Danger. They however wish to underscore the importance of clarifying the boundaries, finalising the management plan and securing the necessary resources for the sustained implementation of the proposed actions as well as the functionality of the management system. Given that the State Party plans to address these remaining measures within the next six months, the World Heritage Centre and the Advisory Bodies consider that it would be timely for a reactive monitoring mission to visit the property in order to ascertain whether the conditions for removal of the property from the List of World Heritage in Danger have been met.

Decision Adopted: 37 COM 7A.22

The World Heritage Committee,

1.  Having examined Document WHC-13/37.COM/7A,

2.  Recalling Decision 36 COM 7A.19 adopted at its 36th session (Saint-Petersburg, 2012),

3.  Notes with appreciation the progress made by the State Party in the implementation of the corrective measures and encourages it to continue its efforts, particularly in the approval and the sustained implementation of the management plan and the clarification of the boundaries of the property;

4.  Requests the State Party to provide three printed and electronic copies of the draft revised management plan for review by the World Heritage Centre and the Advisory Bodies;

5.  Also requests the State Party to invite a World Heritage Centre/ICOMOS reactive monitoring mission to the property to review the current state of conservation and evaluate whether the conditions for the removal of the property from the List of World Heritage in Danger have been met;

6.  Further requests the State Party to submit to the World Heritage Centre, by 1 February 2014 , an updated report on the state of conservation of the property and the implementation of the above, for examination by the World Heritage Committee at its 38th session in 2014;

7.  Decides   to retain the Ruins of Kilwa Kisiwani and Ruins of Songo Mnara (United Republic of Tanzania) on the List of World Heritage in Danger.

Decision Adopted: 37 COM 8C.2

The World Heritage Committee,

  1. Having examined the state of conservation reports of properties inscribed on the List of World Heritage in Danger (WHC-13/37.COM/7A, WHC-13/37.COM/7A.Add and WHC-13/37.COM/7A.Add.
  2. Decides to maintain the following properties on the List of World Heritage in Danger: