1.         Chan Chan Archaeological Zone (Peru) (C 366)

Year of inscription on the World Heritage List  1986

Criteria  (i)(iii)

Year(s) of inscription on the List of World Heritage in Danger    1986-present

Threats for which the property was inscribed on the List of World Heritage in Danger

Desired state of conservation for the removal of the property from the List of World Heritage in Danger

Updated version drafted; proposed for adoption in the draft Decision below

Corrective measures identified

Identified; proposed for adoption in the draft Decision below

Timeframe for the implementation of the corrective measures

Revised proposal established; proposed for adoption in the draft Decision below

Previous Committee Decisions  see page http://whc.unesco.org/en/list/366/documents/

International Assistance

Requests approved: 0 (from 1987-1998)
Total amount approved: USD 118,700
For details, see page http://whc.unesco.org/en/list/366/assistance/

UNESCO Extra-budgetary Funds

N/A

Previous monitoring missions

1997: ICOMOS mission; February 2007: Joint World Heritage Centre / ICOMOS and ICCROM mission; November 2010: Joint World Heritage Centre / ICOMOS reactive monitoring mission. 

Factors affecting the property identified in previous reports

a) Continuous deterioration of earthen architecture structures and decorated surfaces from lack of conservation and maintenance practices;

b) Illegal occupation of the property;

c) Unregulated farming activities;

d) Rising water table levels;

e) Delay in implementing protective measures (legislation and regulations already passed by the national authorities).

Illustrative material  see page http://whc.unesco.org/en/list/366/

Conservation issues presented to the World Heritage Committee in 2012

The State Party submitted a comprehensive report on the state of conservation of the property on 17 February 2012. Actions implemented throughout 2011 were reported in accordance to corrective measures previously adopted.

a) Protection, conservation, restoration, maintenance and management of the property

The Special Project for the Chan Chan Archaeological Complex has carried out interventions since 2006 in accordance to provisions made in the Master Plan. Work was continued on the conservation of perimeter walls, structures on the verge of collapse and others that required material and structural stabilization. Protection measures have also been undertaken for the decorated surfaces in areas currently open to the public, as well as maintenance of replicas, protective shelters, access roads, and weeding of water reservoirs and other areas of the site. The report indicates that investments from the Public Sector Budget Act will continue throughout 2012 in areas that were prioritised in the Management Plan. Awareness raising and educational activities were implemented as in past years.

b) Institutional structure that allows for effective decision-making and the implementation of the Master Plan

The State Party reports that as of January 2011, the Special Project for the Chan Chan Archaeological Complex had been assigned by Ministerial Resolution 039-2011-MC of 26 January 2011, to the Ministry of Culture. This will improve the decision-making process under a single institutional entity. The State Party explained that the Chan Chan Special Project was restructured in order to strengthen the management of the property; however no specific information on this issue was included in the report.

c) Review and update the Master Plan, including a public use plan and a comprehensive risk preparedness plan

The State Party reported that a proposal has been drafted for the update of the Master Plan to include the elements of public use and risk preparedness. Until the Master Plan is updated, the existing Contingency Plan has been expanded to include, water and geological factors affecting the property. Using the World Heritage Resources Manual for Managing Disaster Risks as the basis, guidelines were established for the drafting of a revised plan; however the updated Master Plan, including a public use plan and a comprehensive risk preparedness plan was not included in the State Party’s report. In addition, no timeframe was provided as to when the review of these documents would be concluded.

d) Continue its work to prepare the property for strong rains connected to the El Niño phenomenon

A plan is in place to address these specific emergencies. Interventions foreseen for the 2012 rainy season include improvements to the temporary shelter system which functioned well after the first strong rains of the season.

e) Approve and apply all pertinent legislation and its regulations, mainly Law Nº 28261 and regulations related to the buffer zone

The report notes that the texts of the regulations of the Law no. 28261 have been submitted to the Ministry of Culture for approval, however no further information is provided on its current status or on an expected date for the official approval of this legal text. This legal procedure has been pending for the last 10 years. No clear statement or detailed course of action was submitted by the State Party. Discussions were undertaken between the Ministry of Culture and the Provincial Municipality of Trujillo for the regulations for the buffer zone. No expected timeframe for the approval of such regulations has been provided. Verifications were undertaken to prevent expansion of agricultural areas or attempts to invade the intangible area. Legal and administrative actions under the competency of the Ministry of Culture have been imposed for the necessary cases. Additional actions are planned for 2012 related to planting vegetation to control and prevent the deposit of solid waste in vulnerable sectors of the Complex. In order to control and prevent unauthorized agricultural and housing works, damage to the archaeological areas, vehicular traffic on unauthorized routes, etc., the State Party reported that in 2011 the Ministry of Culture, through the Regional Directorate of Culture, continued dissuasive surveillance activities in the site’s surrounding areas.

f) Design and install a monitoring system with clear indicators for the state of conservation of the property, the effectiveness of the conservation interventions and the management efficiency

Actions have been carried out to monitor water table levels and to verify the efficacy of drainage constructed since 2005. Control wells are also being monitored to record fluctuations. Additionally, data on rainfall, wind, humidity, temperature and radiation is being collected on an hourly basis to assist in the assessment of conservation conditions.

g) Museo Nacional del Gran Chimú and project for a theme park

A proposal for the construction of the Museo Nacional del Gran Chimú was presented in 2011. On 18 November 2011, the General Directorate of Cultural Heritage of the Ministry of Culture issued a Resolution of the Director’s Office, ruling that: “Article 2: The construction of the Museo Nacional del Gran Chimú in the Pampas de Padre Abán is hereby declared inadmissible and other alternatives for its construction should be considered”, based on the fact that the construction of a national museum within the Intangible Zone of the Chan Chan Archaeological Complex is contrary to the provisions contained in the Master Plan. Since then, no additional proposal has been submitted.

The state of conservation report also includes a draft proposal for the Desired state of conservation for the property with updated corrective measures and a revised timeframe for implementation, which is proposed below for adoption. 

Analysis and Conclusions of the World Heritage Centre, ICOMOS and ICCROM

The World Heritage Centre and the Advisory Bodies take note of the progress that has been achieved by the State Party since the time of inscription in continuing to address the serious state of deterioration of the property and the progress made in improving its management. They note however that in spite of these efforts the property will always be highly vulnerable and that measures will need to be implemented on a systematic and ongoing basis to ensure that its Outstanding Universal Value is sustained. Despite the efforts made by local and national authorities, no significant progress has been achieved in relation to the official approval of the Regulations of Law 28261 and the legal framework for the protection of the property and its buffer zone, so as to ensure its removal from the List of World Heritage in Danger.

Decision Adopted: 36 COM 7A.34

The World Heritage Committee,

1.    Having examined Document WHC-12/36.COM/7A,

2.    Recalling Decision 35 COM 7A.33, adopted at its 35th session (UNESCO, 2011),

3.    Welcomes the progress made by the State Party in implementing the recommendations of the 2010 reactive monitoring mission;

4.    Adopts the following Desired state of conservation for the removal of the property from the List of World Heritage in Danger, as follows:

a)  Operational and sustainable management system for the Chan Chan Archaeological Zone in place, including functional institutional arrangements and secured funding,

b)  Approval of revised Management Plan and integration with other planning tools at the municipal and provincial levels, particularly for the management of the buffer zone,

c)  Continued implementation of conservation and maintenance measures at the property, including mitigation measures to address the vulnerability of the earthen architecture remains,

d)  Legislative and regulatory measures to address the issues of illegal occupations and activities at the site enacted and enforced;

5.    Also adopts the following corrective measures and timeframe for their implementation in order to ensure conditions of integrity and authenticity of the property and meet the Desired state of conservation:

a)    Measures to be implemented within one year:

              Conservation

(i)  Comprehensive conservation condition assessment and monitoring to assess the existing state of conservation of the property,

(ii)  Identification of priority areas for interventions,

(iii) Implementation of priority and emergency conservation measures at vulnerable areas of the property, with particular focus on the nine palaces and areas with decorated surfaces, as well as measures centered on the control of water table levels,

(iv)  Definition and adoption of conservation guidelines for intervention,

(v)  Implementation and maintenance of the physical delineation of the property including vegetation barriers and perimeter walls,

(vi) Comprehensive assessment of the current conditions of the existing site museum, identification of priority emergency measures and definition of a comprehensive intervention programme to be included in the public use plan.

(vii) Addressing of solid waste management at the boundaries of the site in collaboration with pertinent authorities,

              Protection and planning

(i) Updating of the Management Plan, including a revised risk Management Plan and a public use plan as well as scheduled and costed provisions for the conservation and management of the property and its buffer zone,

(ii) Finalization of the definition of the buffer zone and its regulatory measures in collaboration with municipal authorities,

(iii) Dissemination and circulation among stakeholders of updated plans for the property and its buffer zone, including provisions and regulations for each zone. Collaboration with entities in defining regulatory measures for the management of the buffer zone and of the World Heritage property,

(iv) Finalization of regulations for Law no. 28261 to address fundamental issues such as the illegal removal of soil, agricultural works and the illegal occupation at the property,

              Management

(v) Evaluation of effectiveness of existing institutional arrangements to include revised provisions in the updated Management Plan,

(vi) Identification of sources for secured funding in the long-term,

b)    Measures to be implemented within two years:

Conservation

(i) Continued implementation of conservation and maintenance actions, with particular focus on finalizing interventions at vulnerable areas,

(ii) Monitoring programme fully in place to evaluate the efficacy and results of interventions and to revise them if needed,

(iii) Maintenance of the physical delimitation of the site,

(iv)Measures for solid waste management at the boundaries of the site fully addressed,

(v)  Interventions for public use at the property, particularly in respect to the site museum in accordance to provisions included in the revised Management Plan,

(vi)Interventions for risk management in accordance to provisions identified in the Management Plan,

Protection and planning

(vii) Integration of the Management Plan in territorial and urban development plans,

(viii) Dissemination of the revised Management Plan to strengthen public and private support in its implementation,

(ix) Approval / enactment of regulatory measures for Law No. 28261 to ensure the conservation and protection of the Outstanding Universal Value and conditions of integrity and authenticity of the property,

(x) Adoption of regulatory measures for the management of the buffer zone,

 Management

(xi)      Operational management arrangements and budgets secured for the comprehensive implementation of the Management Plan,

c)    Measures to be implemented within three years:

Conservation

(i)        Continued implementation of conservation and maintenance measures according to the revised Management Plan,

(ii)       Continued implementation of the monitoring programme and evaluation of results to adapt measures,

(iii)      Continued implementation of public use actions according to Management Plan,

(iv)      Continued implementation of risk management actions according to Management Plan,

(v)       Conclusion of measures at the existing site museum;

Protection and planning

(vi)      Full enforcement of legislative and regulatory frameworks passed by the State Party,

(vii)     Relocation of illegal settlers in collaboration with pertinent authorities,

(viii)    Adequate control of encroachments and urban pressure;

Management

(ix)      Full and systematic implementation of the revised Management Plan in accordance to prescribed policies,

(x)       Functional institutional arrangements with adequate resources secured for long-term implementation of the formulated Management Plan;   

6.  Reiterates its request to the State Party to finalize the process for the approval of pertinent legislation and regulations for the property and buffer zone to ensure their adequate protection, and to find an urgent solution to the legal issues that have been pending for the last 10 years;

7.   Also reiterates its request to the State Party to provide the updated Master Plan, including a public use plan and a comprehensive risk preparedness plan for the property by 1 February 2013;

8.   Requests the State Party to submit to the World Heritage Centre, by 1 February 2013, an updated report on the state of conservation of the property and the implementation of the above, for examination by the World Heritage Committee at its 37th session in 2013;

9.  Decides to retain Chan Chan Archaeological Zone (Peru) on the List of World Heritage in Danger.