Year of inscription on the World Heritage List 1991
Year(s) of inscription on the List of World Heritage in Danger N/A
Previous Committee Decisions see page http://whc.unesco.org/en/list/592/documents/
Requests approved: 0
Total amount approved: USD 5,000
For details, see page http://whc.unesco.org/en/list/592/assistance/
UNESCO Extra-budgetary Funds
Previous monitoring missions
Factors affecting the property identified in previous reports
Tourism Pressure; Lack of management mechanism (including legislation); Lack of presentation and interpretation
Illustrative material see page http://whc.unesco.org/en/list/592/
Conservation issues presented to the World Heritage Committee in 2004
The State Party submitted a report on the state of conservation of the property to the World Heritage Centre, as requested by the World Heritage Committee at its 27th session.
To celebrate the first 20 years since the completion of the international campaign for Borobudur, an Experts’ meeting was organized from 4 to 8 July 2003 by UNESCO in cooperation with the Indonesian Government. To follow up on the recommendations of this meeting, several activities have been undertaken, such as the collection of data by Geographic Positioning System (GPS) and comprehensive studies of the Borobudur Temple in relationship with its surroundings. New 3D laser photogrammetric equipment is being acquired to modernize the equipment of the in situ conservation laboratory of Borobudur. A Geographic Information System (GIS) survey was also initiated in September 2003 to assist in redefining the World Heritage protective boundaries, in view of new archaeological and historical findings concerning the structure of the temple compounds.
Training of local communities and their participation in on-site promotional activities has increased with the support of the Borobudur Studies and Conservation Institute and the Archaeological Park Ltd. To address the issues of visitor management and waste management, several concrete measures have been initiated, such as the obligation for all visitors to leave their bags at the entrance and the dissemination of numerous waste bins and boxes for empty bottles within the property’s premises. A project financed by the UNESCO Japanese Funds-in-Trust entitled ‘Community catchments analysis and communication of the significance of the Borobudur Temple’ started in January 2004 to improve communication of the significance of the site and its surrounding landscape to local communities as well as to tourists.
The parking lot built in Zone 1 is smaller than the original planned design. Both the parking lot and the Guardian’s house are camouflaged by grass and shrubbery. A study based on observation has demonstrated that the existing infrastructures in Zone 1 do not affect the microclimate (temperature, humidity, etc.) of the temple and its surroundings.
The findings and recommendations of the Joint UNESCO-ICOMOS mission of April 2003 were presented to the Committee at its 27th session in the working document 27 COM 7B. Despite these recommendations and the request of the World Heritage Committee at its 27th session to elaborate a long-term commercial and marketing strategy for the property, starting with the organization and control of the informal commercial activities within Zone 2, the visitor is still forced to go through a labyrinth of small shops selling souvenirs and food stalls. This area is turning into a small village, as some of the vendors and their families are actually living in the stalls. At certain seasons, the amount of vendors and hawkers strolling around the site by far exceeds the number of tourists visiting the temple.
In the opinion of ICOMOS, assistance from UNESCO could be very useful if it is well targeted. This would be appropriate for the archaeological work (including GIS) and for the wider socio-economic aspects, such as development of local activities, skills, products, and performance-based attractions for visitors. Assistance is also needed for tourism management and the reworking of the existing entrance area. There should be a programme of targeted intervention assistance with the objective of reorganizing and redesigning the buildings and other facilities at the entrance area.
Analysis and Conclusions of the World Heritage Centre, ICOMOS and ICCROM
Decision Adopted: 28 COM 15B.59
The World Heritage Committee,