1.         Borobudur Temple Compounds (Indonesia) (C 592)

Year of inscription on the World Heritage List  1991

Criteria  (i)(ii)(vi)

Year(s) of inscription on the List of World Heritage in Danger  N/A

Previous Committee Decisions  see page http://whc.unesco.org/en/list/592/documents/

International Assistance

Requests approved: 0 (from 1998-1999)
Total amount approved: USD 5,000
For details, see page http://whc.unesco.org/en/list/592/assistance/

UNESCO Extra-budgetary Funds


Previous monitoring missions


Factors affecting the property identified in previous reports

Tourism Pressure; Lack of management mechanism (including legislation); Lack of presentation and interpretation

Illustrative material  see page http://whc.unesco.org/en/list/592/

Conservation issues presented to the World Heritage Committee in 2004

The State Party submitted a report on the state of conservation of the property to the World Heritage Centre, as requested by the World Heritage Committee at its 27th session.


To celebrate the first 20 years since the completion of the international campaign for Borobudur, an Experts’ meeting was organized from 4 to 8 July 2003 by UNESCO in cooperation with the Indonesian Government. To follow up on the recommendations of this meeting, several activities have been undertaken, such as the collection of data by Geographic Positioning System (GPS) and comprehensive studies of the Borobudur Temple in relationship with its surroundings. New 3D laser photogrammetric equipment is being acquired to modernize the equipment of the in situ conservation laboratory of Borobudur. A Geographic Information System (GIS) survey was also initiated in September 2003 to assist in redefining the World Heritage protective boundaries, in view of new archaeological and historical findings concerning the structure of the temple compounds.


Training of local communities and their participation in on-site promotional activities has increased with the support of the Borobudur Studies and Conservation Institute and the Archaeological Park Ltd. To address the issues of visitor management and waste management, several concrete measures have been initiated, such as the obligation for all visitors to leave their bags at the entrance and the dissemination of numerous waste bins and boxes for empty bottles within the property’s premises. A project financed by the UNESCO Japanese Funds-in-Trust entitled ‘Community catchments analysis and communication of the significance of the Borobudur Temple’ started in January 2004 to improve communication of the significance of the site and its surrounding landscape to local communities as well as to tourists.


The parking lot built in Zone 1 is smaller than the original planned design. Both the parking lot and the Guardian’s house are camouflaged by grass and shrubbery. A study based on observation has demonstrated that the existing infrastructures in Zone 1 do not affect the microclimate (temperature, humidity, etc.) of the temple and its surroundings.


The findings and recommendations of the Joint UNESCO-ICOMOS mission of April 2003 were presented to the Committee at its 27th session in the working document 27 COM 7B. Despite these recommendations and the request of the World Heritage Committee at its 27th session to elaborate a long-term commercial and marketing strategy for the property, starting with the organization and control of the informal commercial activities within Zone 2, the visitor is still forced to go through a labyrinth of small shops selling souvenirs and food stalls. This area is turning into a small village, as some of the vendors and their families are actually living in the stalls. At certain seasons, the amount of vendors and hawkers strolling around the site by far exceeds the number of tourists visiting the temple.


In the opinion of ICOMOS, assistance from UNESCO could be very useful if it is well targeted. This would be appropriate for the archaeological work (including GIS) and for the wider socio-economic aspects, such as development of local activities, skills, products, and performance-based attractions for visitors. Assistance is also needed for tourism management and the reworking of the existing entrance area. There should be a programme of targeted intervention assistance with the objective of reorganizing and redesigning the buildings and other facilities at the entrance area.

Analysis and Conclusions of the World Heritage Centre, ICOMOS and ICCROM


Decision Adopted: 28 COM 15B.59

The World Heritage Committee,

  1. Having been informed of the activities carried out under the extra-budgetary project funded by the Japanese Government at the property,
  2. Thanks the State Party for its dedication in the safeguarding of the property, as well as the Government of Japan for its generous contribution towards the development of community participation at the property;
  3. Acknowledges the renewed efforts of the State Party to improve the management of the property and to implement the recommendations of the July 2003 Experts Meeting;
  4. Encourages the State Party to further involve local communities in the management and presentation of the property through educational and promotional activities;
  5. Reiterates its recommendation to ban major road developments within Zones 1 to 3, although improvement of existing roads may be permitted, and to halt any construction of major commercial shopping centres near the property and within any of the protective zones;
  6. Reaffirms its opposition to the erection of the proposed new tourist entrance and retail precinct (Jagad Jawa) in Zone 3, at the western extremity of the site;
  7. Requests the State Party to submit, by 1 February 2005, a detailed report on the long-term management and development strategy proposed for the property, for examination by the World Heritage Committee at its 29th session in 2005. This report should include progress achieved in the implementation of the following recommendations:
    1. detailed information on the existing or proposed co-ordination mechanisms between the different management authorities responsible for the management of the property, and between them and the national authorities,
    2. proposed visitor management plan to mitigate the effects of high visitor pressure on the property’s long-term sustainability;
    3. proposed medium and long-term strategy for the sustainable development of the property, including consultations with the local communities and commercial activities on-site;
  8. Further requests the State Party to consider revising, in close consultation with the World Heritage Centre and the Advisory Bodies, the World Heritage boundaries of the property in view of the results of the on going research mentioned.