1.         Ruins of Kilwa Kisiwani and Ruins of Songo Mnara (United Republic of Tanzania) (C 144)

Year of inscription on the World Heritage List  1981

Criteria  (iii)

Year(s) of inscription on the List of World Heritage in Danger   2004-2014

Threats for which the property was inscribed on the List of World Heritage in Danger

Deterioration and decay leading to the collapse of the historical and archaeological structures for which the property was inscribed 

Desired state of conservation for the removal of the property from the List of World Heritage in Danger

Adopted, see page http://whc.unesco.org/en/decisions/1586

Corrective measures identified

Adopted, see page http://whc.unesco.org/en/decisions/1586

Timeframe for the implementation of the corrective measures

Adopted, see page http://whc.unesco.org/en/decisions/1586

Previous Committee Decisions  see page http://whc.unesco.org/en/list/144/documents/

International Assistance

Requests approved: 0 (from 1983-2009)
Total amount approved: USD 56,053
For details, see page http://whc.unesco.org/en/list/144/assistance/

UNESCO Extra-budgetary Funds

Total amount provided to the property: USD 201,390 from the Norwegian Funds-in-Trust for UNESCO rehabilitation project

Previous monitoring missions

February 2004: ICOMOS mission; June 2008 and March 2009: Joint World Heritage Centre/ICOMOS reactive monitoring missions.

Factors affecting the property identified in previous reports

a) Lack of approved boundaries for the property and buffer zones linked to the land-use plans and appropriate protection;

b) Deterioration of the architectural heritage fabric;

c) Sea wave erosion;

d) Theft of stone from ruins for use as building material;

e) Lack of functioning local consultative committee;

f) Lack of implementation of the conservation and Management Plans. 

Illustrative material  see page http://whc.unesco.org/en/list/144/

Conservation issues presented to the World Heritage Committee in 2012

The State Party submitted a state of conservation report on 1 February 2012 that responds to the decision adopted by the World Heritage Committee at its 35th session (UNESCO, 2011). It indicates that an agreement has been signed with the World Monuments Fund to implement a project titled “Integrated Preservation at the ruins of Kilwa Kisiwani and Songo Mnara”. A total amount of USD 700,000 has been granted to implement a two-year project that will have 3 main components: Emergency stabilization and preservation in Songo Mnara and Kilwa Kisiwani; Strengthening Coastal Sea Defenses and Strengthening Management Capacities. A work plan has been included in the report and work was expected to commence in February 2012.

a) Boundaries of the property and buffer zone

Surveys were expected to begin in February 2012, as a component of the proposed project “Integrated Preservation of Kilwa Kisiwani and Songo Mnara”. No expected date for submission of maps for delineated boundaries and buffer zone has been provided.

b) Conservation project and comprehensive Management Plan

Within the framework of the above mentioned project, the comprehensive Management Plan will be formulated under the strengthening management capacities component and will consider both islands. It is expected that regional heritage institutions will be involved, including the Centre for Heritage Development in Africa (CHDA) to work on land use planning and the Africa World Heritage Fund to collaborate on the development of the Management Plan and a business plan.

c) Timeframe for implementation of corrective measures

Based on the timetable for the integrated project, the State Party anticipates that corrective measures will be implemented by November 2013.

d) International Assistance request

No formal request has been submitted to the World Heritage Committee for consideration and review. However, the State Party has actively sought funding from other sources, including the African World Heritage Fund, and international heritage organizations.

e) Other issues

The report notes the efforts made in the implementation of corrective measures. In regard to the control of sea erosion, interventions have started to address the impact on historic structures. Notwithstanding, the State Party notes that the threat persists, so risk mapping will be carried out to identify potential courses of actions to control erosion along sea shores.

As for land use, it is expected that with the development of component maps the necessary regulatory tools will be developed, in a participatory manner involving communities and local authorities, to deter further impacts on the property.

Stabilization, conservation and maintenance interventions have been carried out at the Makutani Palace and at the Kilwa Sultans Mausoleums. 

Analysis and Conclusions of the World Heritage Centre, ICOMOS and ICCROM

The World Heritage Centre and the Advisory Bodies consider that the implementation of the Integrated Preservation Project will significantly advance addressing the conditions that warranted the inclusion of the property on the List of World Heritage in Danger. They recommend requesting the State Party to submit the complete project, including technical specifications for interventions, for review prior to implementation. They would encourage the State Party to further explore means to ensure that the financial and technical resources for the sustained implementation of the Management Plan upon its completion are secured. The World Heritage Committee might consider that a reactive monitoring mission could be carried out toward the end of 2013 to assess whether corrective measures have been fully met to remove the property from the List of World Heritage in Danger at the 38th session in 2014.

Decision Adopted: 36 COM 7A.19

The World Heritage Committee,

1. Having examined document WHC-12/36.COM/7A,

2. Recalling Decision 35 COM 7A.18, adopted at its 35th session (UNESCO, 2011),

3. Notes with satisfaction the efforts made for the development and resourcing of the Integrated Preservation project including its three components at the ruins of Kilwa Kisiwani and Songo Mnara and requests the State Party to submit the fully developed World Monuments Fund project, including technical specifications for interventions, to the World Heritage Centre for review by the Advisory Bodies, prior to implementation and as soon as possible;

4. Urges the State Party, in line with the corrective measures and the time frame for their implementation adopted at the 32nd session of the World Heritage Committee, to:

a)  Secure the necessary resources for the sustained implementation of the Management Plan upon completion to ensure a fully operational management system,

b) Survey and delineate boundaries of the property and its buffer zone as well as the extension of the property to include Kilwa Kivinje and Sanje ya Kati,

c)  Establish a proper land-use plan;

5. Also requests the State Party to submit to the World Heritage Centre, by 1 February 2013, an updated report on the state of conservation of the property and the implementation of the above, for examination by the World Heritage Committee at its 37th session in 2013;

6. Decides to retain the Ruins of Kilwa Kisiwani and Ruins of Songo Mnara (United Republic of Tanzania) on the List of World Heritage in Danger.

Decision Adopted: 36 COM 8C.2

The World Heritage Committee,

1.   Following the examination of the state of conservation reports of properties inscribed on the List of World Heritage in Danger (WHC-12/36.COM/7A and WHC-12/36.COM/7A.Add),

2.   Decides to maintain the following properties on the List of World Heritage in Danger: