1.         Memphis and its Necropolis – the Pyramid Fields from Giza to Dahshur (Egypt) (C 86)

Year of inscription on the World Heritage List  1979

Criteria  (i)(iii)(vi)

Year(s) of inscription on the List of World Heritage in Danger  N/A

Previous Committee Decisions  see page http://whc.unesco.org/en/list/86/documents/

International Assistance

Requests approved: 0 (from 1991-1995)
Total amount approved: USD 81,450
For details, see page http://whc.unesco.org/en/list/86/assistance/

UNESCO Extra-budgetary Funds


Previous monitoring missions


Factors affecting the property identified in previous reports

Illustrative material  see page http://whc.unesco.org/en/list/86/

Conservation issues presented to the World Heritage Committee in 2005

A two-and-a-half page document entitled “Report on the Supreme Council of Antiquities’ achievements for site-management in the Giza Pyramids area” was sent to the World Heritage Centre by letter of 26 January 2005.  This document refers to ‘an ambitious plan for the rehabilitation of the Pyramids area, as a significant place in the Memphis Cemetery, started in 1990 until now.’ It mentions briefly new entrances to the area, removal of the pre-existing asphalt road, ‘redigging and restoring the Queens’ pyramid and rehabilitating it for visits,’ redevelopment of the Sphinx square, as well as restoration of the Sphinx itself.  Reference is made to the intervention of the President of Egypt to prevent the penetration of the plateau by a new road link.  Work in progress covers the construction of a new entry point and a security fence encircling the entire Giza plateau, rehabilitation of the existing entrances and the Sphinx Square, and the reorganization of the area internally.

The document also mentions that the scientific excavations in progress have located the tombs of the pyramids’ builders and their township, whilst work on the western cemetery has been completed.  Restoration and conservation work is been carried out on a number of known tombs.

While commending the State Party's commitment towards the preservation of the property, notably the cancelling of the project for the ring road and of the asphalt road around the Great pyramid, the Committee had requested the Egyptian authorities, at its 27th session (UNESCO, 2003) (decision 27 COM 7B.37), to “submit a report on the progress made in the development of Management Plans for the property”.  The presentation and restoration activities, as well as the improvement of tourism facilities mentioned in the report provided cannot be considered as “Management Plans” as such, but rather ad hoc responses to development and tourism requirements.  Moreover, no information was given regarding the remaining areas of the property.

Analysis and Conclusions of the World Heritage Centre, ICOMOS and ICCROM


Decision Adopted: 29 COM 7B.45

The World Heritage Committee,

1. Having examined Document WHC-05/29.COM/7B.Rev,

2. Recalling its Decision 28 COM 15B.50 adopted at its 28th session (Suzhou, 2004),

3. Commends the commitment of the State Party of Egypt towards the improvement of the Pyramids area, and the abolition of the ring road link project which was penetrating the Giza plateau,

4. Regrets that no management plan for the entire property has yet been developed and provided to the World Heritage Centre as requested in previous decisions;

5. Encourages the State Party to develop such a management plan for the entire property, possibly through an international assistance Request to the World Heritage Fund;

6. Requests the State Party to keep the World Heritage Committee informed, via the World Heritage Centre, of any major project proposed on the property, according to the provisions of paragraph 172 of the Operational Guidelines;

7. Also requests the State Party to submit, by 1 February 2007, a report on the progress made in the development of this Management Plan for the entire property, for examination by the Committee at its 31st session (2007).