1.         Fort and Shalamar Gardens in Lahore (Pakistan) (C 171)

Year of inscription on the World Heritage List  1981

Criteria  (i)(ii)(iii)

Year(s) of inscription on the List of World Heritage in Danger    2000-present

Threats for which the property was inscribed on the List of World Heritage in Danger

Demolition of the hydraulic works of the ShalamarGardens.

Corrective measures identified

Several criteria are proposed below

Timeframe for the implementation of the corrective measures

By June 2007 (the criteria proposed below require certain budgetary arrangements by the Provincial Government of Punjab. It is expected that such budgetary arrangements will be assured in the fiscal year July 2007-June 2008).

Previous Committee Decisions  see page http://whc.unesco.org/en/list/171/documents/

International Assistance

Requests approved: 0 (from 1981-2000)
Total amount approved: USD 121,000
For details, see page http://whc.unesco.org/en/list/171/assistance/

UNESCO Extra-budgetary Funds

Total amount provided to the property: USD 975,000 (NORAD: USD 900,000, approved in 2002; Getty Foundation: USD 75,000, approved in 2004). 

Previous monitoring missions

UNESCO-ICOMOS reactive monitoring mission in November 2005.

Factors affecting the property identified in previous reports

a) Urban Pressure;

b) Insufficient management mechanism (including incomplete legislation, lack of financial resources).

Illustrative material  see page http://whc.unesco.org/en/list/171/

Conservation issues presented to the World Heritage Committee in 2006

On 5 April 2006, the World Heritage Centre received a state of conservation report, dated 31 March 2006, with a copy of the two draft master plans from the State Party, one for Lahore Fort and the other for Shalamar Gardens. This report indicates that these final drafts will soon be submitted to the relevant authorities for approval.

In reply to the Committee’s Decision (29 COM 7A.25), the report provides background information concerning the transfer of management of the property from the Federal to the Provincial authorities. This transfer is intended to attain the integrated management of the property and its surrounding area, and responds to the previous lack of co-ordination between the Federal Department of Archaeology responsible for the conservation within the protected monuments, and the provincial agencies in charge of the management of the surrounding areas. Further to this positive change, the Government of Punjab is also strengthening the buffer zone, and has been considering whether or not to acquire and demolish 106 houses around the Shalamar Gardens in order to improve the buffer zone between the locality and cultural property. All staff that was posted on the property prior to the transfer has been retained at the agreement of the Federal Government.

The report also describes recent conservation efforts made by the Government of Punjab, such as improvement of the grassy lawn and the provision of visitor facilities at the Fort. Concerning the Shalamar Gardens, negotiations are underway among the relevant Government Agencies to discuss the removal of structures around the Gardens in order to provide a sufficient buffer zone. In addition, the Lahore Development Authority has been requested to prepare a proper drainage system around the Gardens to protect it from storm water, one of the major causes of destruction of the wall of the Gardens.

Furthermore, the report states that the Government of Punjab has allocated Rs. 600 million (about USD 10 million) for the conservation of the property during the next five years, and various conservation works with a high priority have already been identified.

As requested by the Committee at its 29th session (Durban, 2005), a joint UNESCO/ICOMOS reactive monitoring mission was undertaken to the property in November 2005. According to the mission report, the Directorate of Archaeology of the Punjab Provincial Government has made considerable progress in the preparation of the master plans for the Lahore Fort and the Shalamar Gardens. The master plan for the Lahore Fort has been completed and is awaiting final approval. The master plan for the Shalamar Gardens is under preparation.

However, the mission recognised that no protective and/or corrective measures have been taken concerning the hydraulic works at the Shalamar Gardens that were demolished by the construction of a Grand Trunk Road, in spite of the request made by the Committee in 2000. Neither protective measures such as fencing around the site of the demolished hydraulic works, nor consolidation works on its remaining foundations have been undertaken by the State Party.

ICOMOS also pointed out that the state of conservation of the property was generally poor, mainly due to lack of daily maintenance, encroachment, inadequate water drainage, poor visitor management, etc. Although the recent establishment of the Punjab Heritage Foundation by the Provincial Government reinforces the financial backing for the protection of the cultural property in the province, many of the projects currently under preparation for possible funding from the Foundation would not be in line with the principles outlined in the master plans under preparation. In this context, the State Party is expected to prioritise the allocation of the available resources according to the management objectives determined in the master plans which are under preparation.

The recommendations made by a UNESCO consultant in 2003 to extend the World Heritage property and its buffer zone were also supported by the ICOMOS expert. It was recommended to include the Badshahi Masjid (Royal Mosque), the Tomb of Ranjit Singh and the open areas around these structures in the core zone of the Fort, while the limit of the core zone of the Shalamar Gardens should be reviewed by integrating the Naqar Khana and all other external hydraulic elements. The definition of the buffer zones should also be re-considered accordingly. At present, the possible extension of the property has not been included in the master plans.

The ICOMOS expert also made 11 recommendations primarily aimed at ensuring co-ordination of decision making, improving property maintenance, and accelerating finalization and consolidation of the management plans developed for the two sites. 

Analysis and Conclusions of the World Heritage Centre, ICOMOS and ICCROM


Decision Adopted: 30 COM 7A.27

The World Heritage Committee,

1. Having examined Document WHC-06/30.COM/7A,

2. Recalling Decision 29 COM 7A.25, adopted at its 29th session (Durban, 2005),

3. Notes that considerable progress has been made in the preparation of the master plans for the Lahore Fort and Shalamar Gardens;

4. Congratulates the State Party on the positive change in the conservation framework created through the transfer of management of the property from Federal to Provincial authority;

5. Commends the State Party for all actions taken in the last year to advance the conservation of the property;

6. Regrets, however, that neither the protective measures, such as fencing around the site for the demolished hydraulic works at the Shalamar Gardens, nor the consolidation works on its remaining foundation, have been undertaken by the State Party;

7. Notes with concern that the actual resources allocated by the Punjab Provincial Government may not adequately address the conservation challenges identified in the master plans currently under preparation;

8. Requests the State Party to implement the following measures, which constitute the benchmarks for removal of the property from the List of the World Heritage in Danger:

a) Consolidation the remaining foundations of the demolished hydraulic works at the Shalamar Gardens;

b) Prioritization the allocation and use of the available resources according to the management objectives determined in the master plans;

9. Encourages the State Party to consider the possible extension of the core and buffer zones as recommended by the UNESCO mission in 2003;

10. Further requests the State Party to submit to the World Heritage Centre by 1 February 2007, a report on the progress achieved on the implementation of the above-mentioned recommendations for examination by the Committee at its 31st session in 2007;

11. Decides to retain the Fort and Shalamar Gardens in Lahore (Pakistan) on the List of World Heritage in Danger.

Decision Adopted: 30 COM 8C.2

The World Heritage Committee,

1. Having examined the state of conservation reports of properties inscribed on the List of World Heritage in Danger (WHC-06/30.COM/7A and WHC-06/30.COM/7A.Add.Rev),

2. Maintains the following properties on the List of World Heritage in Danger:

   • Afghanistan, Minaret and Archaeological Remains of Jam (Decision 30 COM 7A.22)

   • Afghanistan, Cultural Landscape and Archaeological Remains of the Bamiyan Valley, (Decision 30 COM 7A.23)

   • Azerbaijan, Walled City of Baku with the Shirvanshah's Palace and Maiden Tower (Decision 30 COM 7A.29

   • Benin, Royal Palaces of Abomey (Decision 30 COM 7A.16)

   • Central African Republic, Manovo-Gounda St Floris National Park (Decision 30 COM 7A.1)

   • Chile, Humberstone and Santa Laura Saltpeter Works (Decision 30 COM 7A.31)

   • Côte d'Ivoire, Comoé National Park (Decision 30 COM 7A.2)

   • Côte d'Ivoire / Guinea, Mount Nimba Strict Nature Reserve (Decision 30 COM 7A.3)

   • Democratic Rep. of the Congo, Okapi Wildlife Reserve (Decision 30 COM 7A.8)

   • Democratic Rep. of the Congo Kahuzi-Biega National Park (Decision 30 COM 7A.6)

   • Democratic Rep. of the Congo Virunga National Park (Decision 30 COM 7A.7)

   • Democratic Rep. of the Congo Garamba National Park (Decision 30 COM 7A.4)

   • Democratic Rep. of the Congo Salonga National Park (Decision 30 COM 7A.5)

   • Egypt, Abu Mena (Decision 30 COM 7A.19)

   • Ethiopia, Simien National Park (Decision 30 COM 7A.9)

   • Honduras, Río Plátano Biosphere Reserve (Decision 30 COM 7A.15)

   • India, Manas Wildlife Sanctuary (Decision 30 COM 7A.13)

   • Islamic Republic of Iran, Bam and its Cultural Landscape (Decision 30 COM 7A.25)

   • Iraq, Ashur (Qal'at Sherqat) (Decision 30 COM 7A.20)

   • Jerusalem, Old City of Jerusalem and its Walls (Decision 30 COM 7A.34)

   • Nepal, Kathmandu Valley (Decision 30 COM 7A.26)

   • Niger, Air and Ténéré Natural Reserves (Decision 30 COM 7A.10)

   • Pakistan, Fort and Shalamar Gardens in Lahore (Decision 30 COM 7A.27)

   • Peru, Chan Chan Archaelogical Zone (Decision 30 COM 7A.32)

   • Philippines, Rice Terraces of the Philippine Cordilleras (Decision 30 COM 7A.28)

   • United Republic of Tanzania, Ruins of Kilwa Kisiwani and Ruins of Songo Mnara (Decision 28 COM 7A.17)

   • United States of America, Everglades National Park (Decision 30 COM 7A.14)

   • Venezuela, Coro and its Port (Decision 30 COM 7A.33)

   • Yemen, Historic Town of Zabid (Decision 30 COM 7A.21)