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Central Amazon Conservation Complex

Central Amazon Conservation Complex

The Central Amazon Conservation Complex makes up the largest protected area in the Amazon Basin (over 6 million hectares) and is one of the planet’s richest regions in terms of biodiversity. It also includes an important sample of varzea ecosystems, igapó forests, lakes and channels which take the form of a constantly evolving aquatic mosaic that is home to the largest array of electric fish in the world. The site protects key threatened species, including giant arapaima fish, the Amazonian manatee, the black caiman and two species of river dolphin.

Complexe de conservation de l’Amazonie centrale

Ce site de plus de 6 millions d’hectares forme la plus grande zone protégée du bassin amazonien et l’une des régions les plus riches de la planète sur le plan de la biodiversité. On y trouve notamment un exemple significatif d’écosystèmes de varzea, des forêts d’igapó, des lacs et des cours d’eau qui forment une mosaïque aquatique où évolue la plus grande diversité de poissons électriques du monde. Le site abrite des espèces menacées d’une importance cruciale, notamment l’arapaima géant, le lamantin de l’Amazone, le caïman noir et deux espèces de dauphins d’eau douce.

مجمّع حفظ منطقة الأمازون الوسطى

يشكّل هذا الموقع الذي تفوق مساحته ٦ ملايين هكتار أكبر منطقة محمية في الحوض الأمازوني وأكثر المناطق الطبيعية غنىً في العالم على صعيد التنوع البيوليوجي. ويضم بشكل خاص عيّنات مهمة من أنظمة الفارزيا البيئية، وغابات الإيغابو، والبحيرات ومجاري المياه التي تؤلّف فسيفساء مائية حقيقية تشكل مرتعاً لأكبر سرب من الأسماك الكهربائية في العالم. كما يوّفر هذا الموقع ملاذاً آمناً لأجناس مهمة جداً ومهددة بالإنقراض، لا سيما سمك البنجاسيوس العملاق، وخروف البحر الأمازوني، والكيمان الأسود (نوع من التماسيح) وجنسين من الدلافين النهرية.

source: UNESCO/ERI

亚马逊河中心综合保护区

亚马逊河中心保护区占地超过600万公顷,是亚马逊盆地中最大的保护区,同时也是地球上生物多样性最丰富的地区之一。保护区内还有平坦耕地生态系统、洪泛森林生态系统,以及湖泊和河流的重要范例,多种水生动物不断进化,这里成为世界上最大的发电鱼类种群的栖息地。保护区为许多珍稀濒危动物提供保护,例如巨骨舌鱼、亚马逊海牛、黑凯门鳄和两种淡水豚类。

source: UNESCO/ERI

Комплекс резерватов Центральной Амазонии

Этот крупнейший во всем бассейне Амазонки комплекс охраняемых природных территорий (6 млн. га) с точки зрения биоразнообразия – один из богатейших регионов на планете. Здесь представлены такие экосистемы, как «варзея» и «игапо», а озера и протоки формируют мозаичную и находящуюся в состоянии постоянного развития аква-систему, которая служит местообитанием для самой крупной в мире популяции электрического угря. К числу редких и исчезающих видов относятся амазонский ламантин, черный кайман, два вида речных дельфинов, а также рыба – гигантская арапаима.

source: UNESCO/ERI

Complejo de conservación de la Amazonia Central

Este sitio de más de seis millones de hectáreas es la zona protegida más vasta de la cuenca del Amazonas y una de las regiones del planeta de más rica biodiversidad. Ofrece una muestra significativa de ecosistemas de varzea, bosques de igapó, lagos y ríos que forman un mosaico acuático donde vive la mayor variedad de especies de peces eléctricos del mundo. Además, el sitio alberga otras importantes especies animales en riesgo de extinción, por ejemplo el arapaima gigante, el manatí del Amazonas, el caimán negro y dos tipos de delfines fluviales.

source: UNESCO/ERI

中央アマゾン保全地域群

source: NFUAJ

Beschermd Centraal-Amazonegebied

Het beschermd Centraal-Amazonegebied is het grootste beschermde gebied in het Amazonebekken (meer dan 6 miljoen hectare groot) en kent een bijzonder rijke biodiversiteit. Het omvat jaarlijks overstroomde (varzea) ecosystemen, igapó bossen, meren en kanalen die samen een voortdurend evoluerend watermozaïek vormen, dat de thuisbasis is van de grootste reeks elektrische vissen ter wereld. Het gebied beschermt verschillende (bedreigde) diersoorten, die veelvuldig voorkomen in zwartwaterrivieren. Onder de zeer bedreigde diersoorten vallen de reuze arapaima, de Amazone zeekoe, de zwarte kaaiman en twee soorten rivierdolfijnen. In totaal komen er 120 soorten zoogdieren, 411 vogelsoorten, 15 reptielensoorten en 320 vissensoorten voor in dit beschermde gebied.

Source: unesco.nl

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The land to the left of the river is the eastern edge of the Jau National Park. The park is the largest forest reserve in South America and covers an area greater than 5.6 million acres. © Public Domain
Justification for Inscription

Criterion (ix): The varzea and igapó forests, lakes, rivers, and islands of the proposed site together constitute physical and biological formations and demonstrate ongoing ecological processes in the development of terrestrial and freshwater ecosystems. They include a constantly changing and evolving mosaic of river channels, lakes, and landforms. The floating (and constantly moving and changing) mats of vegetation typical of the varzea watercourses include a significant number of endemic species, including the largest array of electric fishes in the world. Anavilhanas contains the second largest archipelago of river islands in the Brazilian Amazon.

Criterion (x): The expanded property substantially increases the already impressive protection offered by Jaú National Park to the biological diversity, habitats, and endangered species found in the Central Amazon region. The area is one of the Endemic Bird Areas of the World, is considered as one of the World Wildlife Fund’s 200 Priority Ecoregion for Conservation, and it is also a Centre of Plant Diversity. The expansion of Jaú National Park to include an important sample of Varzea ecosystems, igapó forests, lakes and channels significantly increases the representation of the aquatic biodiversity of the Central Amazon region. Expansion of the site also enhance the protection of key threatened species including giant arapaima fish, the Amazonian manatee, the black caiman, and two species of river dolphin.

Long Description

The Central Amazon Conservation Complex makes up the largest protected area in the Amazon Basin (over 6 million hectares) and is one of the planet's richest regions in terms of biodiversity.

The site is made up of Jaú National Park, Demonstration area of Mamairauá Sustainable Development Reserve, Amanã Sustainable Development Reserve and the Anavilhanas Ecological Station located in Amazonas State  The site includes an important sample of annually flooded (várzea) ecosystems, igapó forests, lakes and channels which take the form of a constantly evolving aquatic mosaic that is home to the largest array of electric fish in the world.

The rivers provide a landscape of white-sand beaches during the dry season and flooded forest during the wet season, as well as secondary stream beds of distinct sizes, channels, paranás and an important fluvial phenomenon, the ria lake, which is typical of all large rivers in the Amazon region. The site contains the nine-tier waterfall of the Carabinani River, and also includes a significant proportion of the black-water drainage system, the headwaters of which are located primarily in the Guiane Shield. Its dark colour results from organic acids released into the water through the decomposition of organic matter and the lack of terrestrial sediments.

The forest cover is linked to the extensive and continuous forests of the Amazon Central Plain. It encompasses a landscape, which is characteristic of the lower Negro River and was typified as follows: dense tropical forest, located primarily on terra firme, thereby free from inundation in the flooding season; open tropical forest, apparently associated with the physiognomy of tropical forests and areas of ecological tension, such as wide soil and climatic transitions between two distinct geobotanical zones; and Campinarana, a vegetation mosaic restricted to the Negro River watershed, occupying primarily upland regions and drained by tabular watercourses.

The park protects an impressive sample of fauna, with many species associated to black-water river systems. There is a high diversity of vertebrates with 120 species of mammals, 411 birds, 15 reptiles and 320 fishes. Numerous species of conservation concern live within the park, including jaguar, giant otter, Amazonian manatee, South American river turtle and black caiman. The importance of the site for Amazon fauna is reflected in the fact that it contains approximately 60% of the species of fish reported to exist in the Negro River watershed, and also 60% of the birds recorded from the Central Amazon.

The site is home to relics of past human occupation of the Amazon region. A recent survey identified 17 archaeological sites at the mouth of the Negro River, with collected material as of yet undated, suggesting that the area may have been a passageway between the Solimoes and Negro watersheds and representative of ethnic groups present in these two regions. Numerous stone carvings are found on the river's edge, reinforcing the potential for archaeological research.

Source: UNESCO/CLT/WHC
Notes
  • Extension of "Jaú National Park".