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Old Town of Corfu

Old Town of Corfu

The Old Town of Corfu, on the Island of Corfu off the western coasts of Albania and Greece, is located in a strategic position at the entrance of the Adriatic Sea, and has its roots in the 8th century BC. The three forts of the town, designed by renowned Venetian engineers, were used for four centuries to defend the maritime trading interests of the Republic of Venice against the Ottoman Empire. In the course of time, the forts were repaired and partly rebuilt several times, more recently under British rule in the 19th century. The mainly neoclassical housing stock of the Old Town is partly from the Venetian period, partly of later construction, notably the 19th century. As a fortified Mediterranean port, Corfu’s urban and port ensemble is notable for its high level of integrity and authenticity.

Vieille ville de Corfou

La vieille ville située sur l’île de Corfou, au large des côtes occidentales de l’Albanie et de la Grèce, occupe une position stratégique à l’entrée de la mer Adriatique. Le début de son histoire remonte au VIIIe siècle av. J.-C. Les trois forts de la ville, conçus par des ingénieurs vénitiens renommés, ont servi pendant quatre siècles à défendre les intérêts du commerce maritime de la République de Venise contre l’Empire ottoman. Au fil du temps, ces fortifications durent être réparées et partiellement reconstruites à plusieurs reprises, les travaux les plus récents ayant été réalisés au XIXe siècle sous la domination britannique. Les bâtiments de la vieille ville, pour la plupart de style néoclassique, datent en partie de la période vénitienne et en partie d’époques plus tardives, notamment du XIXe siècle. Corfou, ville portuaire fortifiée de la Méditerranée, est exceptionnelle par son intégrité et son authenticité.

مدينة كورفو القديمة

تقع المدينة التاريخية في جزيرة كورفو، على مسافة من السواحل الغربية الألبانية واليونانية، وتشكل موقعاً استراتيجياً عند مدخل البحر الأدرياتيكي. كما أن جذورها تعود إلى القرن الثامن قبل الميلاد. وقد صمدت الحصون الثلاثة للمدينة، التي صممها مهندسون مشهورون من البندقية، طوال أربعة قرون للدفاع عن المصالح التجارية البحرية لجمهورية البندقية ضد الامبراطورية العثمانية. وأصلحت الحصون على مرّ الزمن وأعيد بناؤها جزئياً عدة مرات، لا سيما إبان الحكم البريطاني في القرن التاسع عشر. وترقى البنى النيوكلاسيكية المنتشرة في المدينة القديمة إلى الحقبة الإيطالية (البندقية) في جزء منها، في حين أن البعض الآخر يعود إلى فترة لاحقة، وتحديداً إلى القرن التاسع عشر. ويُعدّ مرفأ كورفو المحصَّن من أبرز المرافئ المتوسطية لما يتصف به من وحدة في البناء وأصالة رفيعة.

السيدة النبيلة وكراسي البلاستيك رسالة اليونسكو (2007)

 

source: UNESCO/ERI

科孚古城

科孚古城起源于公元前8世纪,位于希腊西海岸的科孚岛,与阿尔巴尼亚隔海峡相望,占据了亚得里亚海入海口的战略位置。古城的三座要塞由著名的威尼斯工程师设计,在400多年里被威尼斯共和国用来保护海上贸易利益,抵抗土耳其帝国。时光荏苒,19世纪英国统治时期,要塞历经多次修缮,并部分重建。在古城的新古典主义建筑当中,有一部分建于威尼斯统治时期,另有一部分是后建的,主要为19世纪建筑。作为地中海的港口要塞,科孚城区和港口建筑群因高度完整、保存良好而闻名于世。

source: UNESCO/ERI

Древний город Корфу

Древний город на острове Корфу, расположенном по соседству с западным побережьем Албании и Греции, занимает стратегическое положение при входе в Адриатику. Его история берет начало в VIII в. до н.э., когда Венецианская Республика построила здесь три форта, которые в течение четырех столетий защищали ее морские торговые суда от нападений Оттоманской империи. Со временем эти фортификационные сооружения неоднократно ремонтировались и частично перестраивались. Старинные здания города, в основном неоклассического стиля, относятся к венецианскому периоду и к более поздним временам, в частности, к XIX в. Средиземноморский город-крепость Корфу – уникален своим ансамблем и подлинностью сохранившихся строений.

 

source: UNESCO/ERI

Ciudad vieja de Corfú

Situada en la isla de su mismo nombre, frente a las costas de Albania y Grecia, la ciudad vieja de Corfú ocupa una posición estratégica a la entrada del Mar Adriático. Posee vestigios arqueológicos que datan del siglo VIII a.C. También cuenta con tres fortificaciones diseñadas por ingenieros venecianos, que durante cuatro siglos sirvieron para defender los intereses del comercio marítimo de la República de Venecia contra el Imperio Otomano. Con el correr del tiempo, las fortificaciones fueron reparadas y parcialmente reconstruidas en varias ocasiones. Las últimas obras fueron realizadas en el siglo XIX, en tiempos de la dominación británica. Los edificios de la ciudad vieja son en su mayoría de estilo neoclásico. Algunos datan de la dominación veneciana y otros de épocas más tardías, en particular del siglo XIX. La integridad y autenticidad de la vieja Corfú hacen de ella un ejemplo excepcional de ciudad portuaria fortificada del Mediterráneo.

source: UNESCO/ERI

コルフ旧市街

source: NFUAJ

Oude stad Corfu

De oude stad Corfu, op het eiland Corfu, heeft zijn wortels in de 8e eeuw voor Christus. De stad ligt op een strategische positie bij de ingang van de Adriatische Zee. De drie forten van de stad zijn ontworpen door beroemde Venetiaanse ingenieurs. Vier eeuwen lang deden ze dienst om de maritieme handelsbelangen van de Republiek van Venetië tegen het Ottomaanse Rijk te verdedigen. De forten werden meerdere malen hersteld en deels herbouwd, het meest recent onder Britse heerschappij in de 19e eeuw. De neoklassieke woningen in Corfu dateren deels uit de Venetiaanse periode en deels uit latere periodes, voornamelijk de 19e eeuw.

Source: unesco.nl

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panoramic view © Municipality of Corfu
Outstanding Universal Value

The ensemble of the fortifications and the Old Town of Corfu is located in a strategic location at the entrance to the Adriatic Sea. Historically, its roots go back to the 8th century BC and to the Byzantine period. It has thus been subject to various influences and a mix of different peoples. From the 15th century, Corfu was under Venetian rule for some four centuries, then passing to French, British and Greek governments. At various occasions, it had to defend the Venetian maritime empire against the Ottoman army. Corfu was a well thought of example of fortification engineering, designed by the architect Sanmicheli, and it proved its worth through practical warfare. Corfu has its specific identity, which is reflected in the design of its system of fortification and in its neo-classical building stock. As such, it can be placed alongside other major Mediterranean fortified port cities.

Criterion (iv): The urban and port ensemble of Corfu, dominated by its fortresses of Venetian origin, constitutes an architectural example of outstanding universal value in both its authenticity and its integrity.

The overall form of the fortifications has been retained and displays traces of Venetian occupation, including the Old Citadel and the New Fort, but primarily interventions from the British period. The present form of the ensemble results from the works in the 19th and 20th centuries. The authenticity and integrity of the urban fabric are primarily those of a neo-classical town.

The responsibility for protection is shared by several institutions and relevant decrees. These include the Hellenic Ministry of Culture (ministerial decision of 1980), the Ministry of the Environment, Spatial Planning and Public Works (Presidential decree of 1980) and the Municipality of Corfu (Presidential decree of 1981). Also relevant are: the Greek law on the shoreline of towns and of islands in general; the law on the protection of antiquities and cultural heritage in general (n° 3028/2002) and the establishment of a new independent Superintendence for Byzantine and post-Byzantine antiquities, in 2006. A buffer zone has been established. The proactive policies of restoration and enhancement of the fortifications and of the citadel have resulted in a generally acceptable state of conservation. Many works however have still to be completed or started. A management plan has been prepared. An urban action plan, which is in line with the management plan of the nominated property, has just been adopted (2005) for the period 2006-2012.

Historical Description

Corfu, the first of the Ionian Islands encountered at the entrance to the Adriatic, was annexed to Greece by a group of Eretrians (775-750 BCE). In 734 BCE the Corinthians founded a colony known as Kerkyra to the south of where the Old Town now stands. The town became a trading post on the way to Sicily and founded further colonies in Illyria and Epirus. The coast of Epirus and Corfu itself came under the sway of the Roman Republic (229 BCE) and served as the jumping-off point for Rome's expansion into the east. In the reign of Caligula two disciples of the Apostle Paul, St Jason, Bishop of Iconium, and Sosipater, Bishop of Tarsus, introduced Christianity to the island.

Corfu fell to the lot of the Eastern Empire at the time of the division in 336 and entered a long period of unsettled fortunes, beginning with the invasion of the Goths (551).

The population gradually abandoned the old town and moved to the peninsula surmounted by two peaks (the korifi) where the ancient citadel now stands. The Venetians, who were beginning to play a more decisive role in the southern Adriatic, came to the aid of a failing Byzantium, thereby conveniently defending their own trade with Constantinople against the Norman prince Robert Guiscard. Corfu was taken by the Normans in 1081 and returned to the Byzantine Empire in 1084.

Following the Fourth Crusade and the sack of Constantinople by the Crusaders in 1204, the Byzantine Empire was broken up and, in return for their military support, the Venetians obtained all the naval bases they needed to control the Aegean and the Ionian Seas, including Corfu, which they occupied briefly from 1204 to 1214. For the next half-century, the island fell under the sway of the Despots of Epirus (1214-67) and then that of the Angevins of Naples (1267-1368), who used it to further their policies against both the Byzantine Empire now re-established in Constantinople and the Republic of Venice. The tiny medieval town grew up between the two fortified peaks, the Byzantine Castel da Mare and the Angevin Castel di Terra, in the shelter of a defensive wall fortified with towers. Writings from the first half of the 13th century tell of a separation of administrative and religious powers between the inhabitants of the citadel and those of the outlying parts of the town occupying what is now the Spianada.

In order to assert its naval and commercial power in the Southern Adriatic, the Republic of Venice took advantage of the internal conflicts raging in the Kingdom of Naples to take control of Corfu (1386-1797). Alongside Negropont (Chalcis), Crete, and Modon (Methoni), it would form one of the bases from which to counter the Ottoman maritime offensive and serve as a revictualling station for ships en route to Romania and the Black Sea.

The ongoing work on defining, improving, and expanding the medieval fortified perimeter reflects the economic and strategic role of Corfu during the four centuries of Venetian occupation. In the early 15th century activity concentrated on the medieval town, with the development of harbour facilities (docks, quays and arsenals) and continued with the renovation of the defence works. Early in the following century a canal was dug, cutting off the medieval town from its suburbs.

Following the siege of the town by the Turks in 1537 and the burning of the suburbs, a new programme of works was launched to isolate the citadel further and strengthen its defences. The strip of land (now the Spianada) cleared in 1516 was widened by demolishing houses facing the citadel walls, two new bastions were raised on the banks of the canal, the elevation of the perimeter walls was lowered, and the two castelli were replaced by new structures. The work, based on plans drawn by Veronese architect Michele Sanmicheli (1487-1559), were completed in 1558, bringing the town's defences up to date with the rapid progress made in artillery in recent decades.

Yet another siege by the Turks in 1571 decided the Venetians to embark on a vast project covering the medieval town, its suburbs, the harbour, and all the military buildings (1576-88). Ferrante Vitelli, architect to the Duke of Savoy, sited a fort (the New Fort) on the low hill of St Mark to the west of the old town to command the surrounding land and at sea, and also the 24 suburbs enclosed by a ditched wall with bastions and four gates. More buildings, both military and civil, were erected and the 15th century Mandraki harbour was restructured and enlarged. At the same time, the medieval town was converted to more specifically military uses (the cathedral was transferred to the new town in the 17th century) to become the Old Citadel.

Between 1669 and 1682 the system of defences was further strengthened to the west by a second wall, the work of military engineer Filippo Vernada. In 1714 the Turks sought to reconquer Morea (the Peloponnese) but Venetian resistance hardened when the Turkish forces headed towards Corfu. The support of Christian naval fleets and an Austrian victory in Hungary in 1716 helped to save the town. The commander of the Venetian forces on Corfu, Giovanni Maria von Schulenburg, was inspired by the designs of Filippo Vernada to put the final touches to this great fortified ensemble. The outer western defences were reinforced by a complex system of outworks on the heights of two mountains, Abraham and Salvatore, and on the intermediate fort of San Rocco (1717-30).

The treaty of Campo Formio (1797) marked the end of the Republic of Venice and saw Corfu come under French control (1797-99) until France withdrew before the Russian-Turkish alliance that founded the State of the Ionian Islands, of which Corfu would become the capital (1799-1807). The redrawing of territorial boundaries in Europe after the fall of Napoleon made Corfu, after a brief interlude of renewed French control (1807-14), a British protectorate for the next half-century (1814-64).

As the capital of the United States of the Ionian Islands, Corfu lost its strategic importance. Under the governance of the British High Commissioner Sir Thomas Maitland (1816-24), development activity concentrated on the Spianada; his successor, Sir Frederic Adam (1824-32), turned his attention towards public works (building an aqueduct, restructuring the Old Citadel and adding new military buildings at the expense of the Venetian buildings, reconstruction and raising of the town's dwellings) and the reorganisation of the educational system (the new Ionian Academy was opened in 1824), contributing to the upsurge in intellectual interests sparked during the French occupation. At the same time, the British began demolishing the outer fortifications on the western edge of the town and planning residential areas outside the defensive walls.

In 1864 the island was attached to the Kingdom of the Hellenes. The fortresses were disarmed and several sections of the perimeter wall and the defences were gradually demolished. The island became a favoured holiday destination for the aristocracy of Europe. The Old Town was badly damaged by bombing in 1943. Added to the loss of life was the destruction of many houses and public buildings (the Ionian Parliament, the theatre, and the library), fourteen churches, and a number of buildings in the Old Citadel. In recent decades the gradual growth of the new town has accelerated with the expansion of tourism.

 

Source: Advisory Body Evaluation