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Zollverein Coal Mine Industrial Complex in Essen

Zollverein Coal Mine Industrial Complex in Essen

The Zollverein industrial complex in Land Nordrhein-Westfalen consists of the complete infrastructure of a historical coal-mining site, with some 20th-century buildings of outstanding architectural merit. It constitutes remarkable material evidence of the evolution and decline of an essential industry over the past 150 years.

Complexe industriel de la mine de charbon de Zollverein à Essen

Le complexe industriel de Zollverein, dans le Land de Rhénanie-du-Nord-Westphalie, comprend les installations complètes d’un site historique d’extraction de charbon et plusieurs édifices du XXe siècle d’une valeur architecturale inestimable. Il constitue une preuve matérielle exceptionnelle de l’essor et du déclin de cette industrie fondamentale lors des 150 dernières années.

المجمع الصناعي لاستخراج الفحم الحجري في إيسين

يشمل مجمّع زولفيرين الصناعي في منطقة رينانيا الشمالية- ويستفاليا المنشآت الكاملة الخاصة بموقع تاريخي لاستخراج الفحم الى جانب العديد من المباني التي تعود إلى القرن العشرين وهي ذات قيمة هندسية معمارية لا تقدّر بثمن. فهي تشكل مثالاً حياً واستثنائياً لانتعاش هذه الصناعة الأساسية خلال السنوات ال 150 الأخيرة الذي تلاه أفول نجمها.

source: UNESCO/ERI

埃森的关税同盟煤矿工业区

位于北莱茵-威斯特法仑(Nordrhein-Westfalen)专区的普鲁士“关税同盟”工业区完整保留着历史上煤矿的基础设施,那里的一些20世纪的建筑也展示着杰出的建筑价值。工业区的景观见证了过去150年中曾经作为当地支柱工业的煤矿业的兴起与衰落。

source: UNESCO/ERI

Старая угольная шахта Цольферайн в городе Эссен

Индустриальный ландшафт Цольферайн в Земле Северный Рейн-Вестфалия сохраняет полную инфраструктуру исторического угледобывающего предприятия с несколькими зданиями XX в., представляющими исключительный архитектурный интерес. Он является важным материальным свидетельством эволюции и упадка промышленности Эссена в течение последних 150 лет.

source: UNESCO/ERI

Complejo industrial de la mina de carbón de Zollverein en Essen

En el complejo industrial de Zollverein, situado en el Land de Renania del Norte-Westfalia, se han mantenido íntegramente las infraestructuras de un sitio histórico de extracción de carbón. El complejo, que también comprende varios edificios del siglo XX de indiscutible valor arquitectónico, constituye un testimonio excepcional del auge y el declive de esta industria tan esencial para la economía en los últimos 150 años.

source: UNESCO/ERI

エッセンのツォルフェライン炭坑業遺産群
ドイツ中部、ノルトライン=ウェストファーレン州に残る産業景観。建築近代化運動のデザイン概念を採り入れて設計された産業建築群で、20世紀における最新建築技術を導入した建造物も含まれ、工業地域における完全な設備を有する歴史的な産業記念物である。この炭坑業遺産群は、ヨーロッパにおける伝統的な重工業発展期の技術と構造の例証であり、150年以上におよぶ鉱業の発展と衰退の歩みを雄弁に物語っている。

source: NFUAJ

Kolenmijnindustriecomplex Zollverein in Essen

Het industriecomplex Zollverein in Nordrhein-Westfalen bestaat uit de complete infrastructuur van een historisch kolenwinningsgebied. Hieronder vallen een aantal 20e-eeuwse gebouwen van opvallende architectonische waarde. De gebouwen zijn voorbeelden van de ontwerpconcepten van de Moderne Beweging, toegepast op architectuur in een totaal industriële context. Het industriecomplex was een van de modernste steenkolenmijnen ter wereld in de tijd dat het actief in gebruik was, dit was van halverwege de 19e eeuw tot de sluiting van de mijn in 1986. Zollverein is het tastbare bewijs van de opkomst en ondergang van de zware industrie in de afgelopen 150 jaar.

Source: unesco.nl

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Zollverein Coal Mine Industrial Complex in Essen (Germany) © Rainer Halama
Outstanding Universal Value

Brief synthesis

The Zollverein XII Coal Mine Industrial Complex is an important example of a European primary industry of great economic significance in the 19th and 20th centuries. It consists of the complete installations of a historical coal-mining site: the pits, coking plants, railway lines, pit heaps, miner’s housing and consumer and welfare facilities. The mine is especially noteworthy of the high architectural quality of its buildings of the Modern Movement.

Zollverein XII was created at the end of a phase of political and economic upheaval and change in Germany, which was represented aesthetically in the transition from Expressionism to Cubism and Functionalism. At the same time, Zollverein XII embodies this short economic boom between the two World Wars, which has gone down in history as the “Roaring Twenties.” Zollverein is also, and by no means least, a monument of industrial history reflecting an era, in which, for the first time, globalisation and the worldwide interdependence of economic factors played a vital part.

The architects Fritz Schupp and Martin Kemmer developed Zollverein XII in the graphic language of the Bauhaus as a group of buildings which combined form and function in a masterly way. 

Criterion (ii): The Zollverein XII Coal Mine Industrial Complex is an exceptional industrial monument by virtue of the fact that its buildings are outstanding examples of the application of the design concepts of the Modern Movement in architecture in a wholly industrial context. 

Criterion (iii): The technological and other structures of Zollverein XII are representative of a crucial period in the development of traditional heavy industries in Europe, which were reinforced through the parallel development and application of Modern Movement architectural designs of outstanding quality. 

Integrity

The Zollverein Coal Mine Industrial Complex in Essen comprises all the elements of intensive 19th and 20th century industrial exploitation – the complete complex of buildings and equipment necessary for the extraction and treatment of coal and the production of coke, the required transportation network (in the case of railways) as well as the vast heaps of pit waste. 

Authenticity

The Zollverein XII Coal Mine Industrial Complex has a high level of authenticity. The individual industrial components have inevitably lost their functional authenticity. However, a policy of sensitive and imaginative adaptive reuse has ensured that their forms survive intact, with significant items of the industrial plant preserved, and that their interrelationships remain visible in a clear and logical manner. In particular, the authenticity of the important group of industrial buildings designed for Zollverein XII by Fritz Schupp has been carefully conserved. 

Protection and management requirements

The Zollverein XII Coal Mine Industrial Complex is a listed industrial monument according to paragraphs 2 and 3 of the Act on the Protection and Conservation of Monuments of the State of North Rhine-Westphalia, dated 11 March 1980 (Protection Law). Building activities within the property and its buffer zone are regulated by paragraph 9 (2) of the Protection Law and through Local Building Plans.

The Zollverein Foundation, established and financed by the State of North Rhine-Westphalia, is the owner of essential parts of the property and responsible for the management and the sustainable development of the World Heritage property. The Foundation acts in concertation with the regional and local historic monument conservation authorities. The management system consists of a set of maintenance and conservation measures. The strategy for the mine’s preservation focuses on a responsible redevelopment of the buildings for the purpose of culture and design, entertainment and tourism, implemented by the Zollverein Foundation.