jump to the content

The Cathedral of St James in Šibenik

The Cathedral of St James in Šibenik

The Cathedral of St James in Šibenik (1431-1535), on the Dalmatian coast, bears witness to the considerable exchanges in the field of monumental arts between Northern Italy, Dalmatia and Tuscany in the 15th and 16th centuries. The three architects who succeeded one another in the construction of the Cathedral - Francesco di Giacomo, Georgius Mathei Dalmaticus and Niccolò di Giovanni Fiorentino - developed a structure built entirely from stone and using unique construction techniques for the vaulting and the dome of the Cathedral. The form and the decorative elements of the Cathedral, such as a remarkable frieze decorated with 71 sculptured faces of men, women, and children, also illustrate the successful fusion of Gothic and Renaissance art.

Cathédrale Saint-Jacques de Šibenik

La cathédrale Saint-Jacques (1431 - 1535) à Šibenik, sur la côte dalmate, témoigne des échanges considérables qui se sont déroulés entre l'Italie du Nord, la Dalmatie et la Toscane du XVe au XVIe siècle dans les domaine des arts monumentaux. Les trois architectes qui se sont succédés sur le chantier de la cathédrale – Francesco di Giacomo, Georgius Mathei Dalmaticus et Niccolò di Giovanni Fiorentino – ont développé une structure bâtie entièrement en pierre et des techniques de constructions uniques, notamment pour les voûtes et la coupole de l'édifice. La forme et les éléments décoratifs de la cathédrale, telle cette remarquable frise ornée de soixante et onze portraits sculptés de femmes, d'hommes et d'enfants, illustrent également la fusion réussie de l'art gothique et de la Renaissance.

كاتدرائيّة القديس يعقوب في مدينة سيبنيك

تشكّل كاتدرائيّة القديس يعقوب (1431-1535) في مدينة سيبنيك القائمة على الساحل الدالماتي شهادةً على حلقات التبادل المهمّة التي جرت بين إيطاليا الشماليّة ودالماتيا وتوسكانا بين القرنين الخامس والسادس عشر في حقل فنّ التحف. وتعاقب على العمل في الكاتدرائية المهندسون فرانشيسكو دي جياكونو وجورجيوس ماتاي دالماتيكوس ونيكولو دي جيوفاني فيورنتينو وقد أعدّوا هيكليّةً مبنيّةً بالكامل من الصخر ومن تقنيّات البناء الفريدة من نوعها، خصوصاً بالنسبة إلى قناطر المبنى وقبّته. ويُشكّل شكل الكاتدرائيّة وزينتها، على غرار ذاك الإفريز المزيّن بأحد وسبعين رسماً منحوتاً من نساء ورجال وأطفال، الاندماج الناجح بين الطراز القوطي والنهضة.

source: UNESCO/ERI

西贝尼克的圣詹姆斯大教堂

西贝尼克的圣詹姆斯大教堂(1431年至1535年)位于达尔马提亚海岸(Dalmatian coast),见证了15和16世纪意大利北部、达尔马提亚与托斯卡纳之间建筑艺术领域的大规模交流。弗兰切斯科迪·贾科莫(Francesco di Giacomo)、佐治鸠斯·马赛·达尔马提库斯(Georgius Mathei Dalmaticus)和尼科络·帝·乔万尼·菲奥伦提诺(Niccolò di Giovanni Fiorentino)三位建筑师相继负责大教堂的建设工作。他们发明了一种结构,完全由岩石构成,并采用了独特的建筑技巧修建大教堂的拱顶和圆顶。大教堂的形式和装饰要素,例如由71个形态各异的男人、女人、孩子脸装饰的教堂中眉,展现了哥特艺术与文艺复兴艺术的成功融合。

source: UNESCO/ERI

Кафедральный собор Св. Иакова в городе Шибеник

Собор Св. Иакова в Шибенике, построенный в 1431-1535 гг. на побережье Далмации, демонстрирует тесную взаимосвязь, которая существовала в XV-XVI вв. в области монументального искусства между Северной Италией, Далмацией и Тосканой. Три архитектора, сменявшие друг друга в строительстве собора, Франческо ди Джакомо, Юрай Далматинец и Никола Флорентинец, воздвигли здание целиком из камня, применяя уникальную строительную технологию при сооружении сводов и купола. Форма и декоративные элементы собора, такие как замечательный фриз с 71 скульптурным изображением лиц мужчин, женщин и детей, также иллюстрируют успешное слияние стиля готики с искусством Возрождения.

source: UNESCO/ERI

Catedral de Santiago de Šibenik

Construida entre 1431 y 1535, la catedral de Šibenik, ciudad de la costa dálmata, atestigua los importantes intercambios en el ámbito de las artes monumentales que se dieron entre el norte de Italia, la Toscana y Dalmacia desde el siglo XVI hasta el XVII. Los tres arquitectos que se sucedieron en la dirección de las obras –Francesco di Giacomo, Georgius Mathei Dalmaticus y Niccolo Giovanni Fiorentino– levantaron una estructura edificada con piedra en su totalidad y elaboraron técnicas arquitectónicas excepcionales para levantar las bóvedas y la cúpula. La forma de esta catedral y su ornamentación –por ejemplo, el hermoso friso con 75 figuras esculpidas de hombres, mujeres y niños– ejemplifican una lograda fusión del arte gótico y el renacentista.

source: UNESCO/ERI

シベニクの聖ヤコブ大聖堂

source: NFUAJ

Kathedraal van Sint Jacobus in Šibenik

De kathedraal van Sint Jacobus in Šibenik (1431-1535) getuigt van de grote uitwisselingen op het gebied van monumentale kunst tussen Noord-Italië, Dalmatië en Toscane in de 15e en 16e eeuw. De vorm en decoratieve elementen illustreren deze succesvolle combinatie van gotische en renaissance kunst ook, bijvoorbeeld via een opmerkelijke fries versierd met 71 gebeeldhouwde gezichten van mannen, vrouwen en kinderen. Drie architecten volgden elkaar op bij het bouwen van de kathedraal: Francesco di Giacomo, Georgius Mathei Dalmaticus en Niccolò di Giovanni Fiorentino. Ze ontwikkelden een volledig van steen gebouwde structuur en gebruikten unieke constructietechnieken voor de gewelven en koepel van de kathedraal.

Source: unesco.nl

  • English
  • French
  • Arabic
  • Chinese
  • Russian
  • Spanish
  • Japanese
  • Dutch
The Cathedral of St James in Šibenik © LimesMedia
Justification for Inscription

Criterion (i): The structural characteristics of the Cathedral of St James in Šibenik make it a unique and outstanding building in which Gothic and Renaissance forms have been successfully blended. Criterion ii The Cathedral of St James is the fruitful outcome of considerable interchanges of influences between the three culturally different regions of Northern Italy, Dalmatia, and Tuscany in the 15th and 16th centuries. These interchanges created the conditions for unique and outstanding solutions to the technical and structural problems of constructing the cathedral vaulting and dome. Criterion iv The Cathedral of St James in Šibenik is a unique testimony to the transition from the Gothic to the Renaissance period in church architecture.

Long Description

The Cathedral of Šibenik is the fruitful outcome of considerable interchanges of influences between the three culturally different regions of northern Italy, Dalmatia and Tuscany in the 15th and 16th centuries. These interchanges created the conditions for unique and outstanding solutions to the technical and structural problems of constructing the cathedral vaulting and dome. The structural characteristics of the cathedral make it a unique and outstanding building in which Gothic and Renaissance forms have been successfully blended.

Šibenik is a small town on the Dalmatian coast, opening out on a bay separated from the Adriatic by the Sveti Ante (St Anthony) channel and a multitude of tiny islands. The town was founded in the 10th century by the Subic family; it consists of a labyrinth of narrow streets and small squares climbing from the level of the cathedral to the fortress at the summit of the old town. Early in the 12th century it came under the sway of the kings of Hungary, who granted its independence. In 1116 and 1378 Šibenik suffered at the hands of the Venetians. They took the town in 1412, renaming it Sebenico and holding it until the fall of the Venetian Republic in 1797. The cathedral of St James owes its present appearance to three successive periods of construction between 9 April 1431, when the first stone was laid, and 1535.

The Cathedral of St James bears witness to the considerable exchanges in the field of monumental arts between northern Italy, Dalmatia, and Tuscany in the 15th and 16th centuries. The first phase (1431-41) was carried out under the supervision of master mason Francesco di Giacomo, who began raising the west front and the walls of the nave and aisles as far as the first cornice. This first phase of construction in the Gothic style of northern Italy was completed by the west and north doors. In 1441 Dalmatian architect and sculptor Georgius Mathei Dalmaticus was charged with the resumption of work to transform the simple basilica into a more imposing edifice. His projects were only partially executed and came to a halt once the apses were complete. Georgius Mathei Dalmaticus mingled the forms of late Gothic with those of the early Renaissance. The third and final phase was directed between 1475 and 1505 by Niccolò di Giovanni Fiorentino, an Italian architect and sculptor who retained the overall conception of the structure, the use of stone as the only material, and the method of joining the slabs of stone developed by his predecessor.

The cathedral, consecrated in 1555, takes the form of a basilica consisting of three aisles, each ending in an apse, beyond a non-salient transept surmounted by a dome. A rectangular sacristy raised on pillars under which runs a passage leading to the baptistry stands between the southern apse and the Episcopal Palace. The three aisles are separated by two rows of Gothic columns, the capitals of which are decorated with plant motifs. Above them the fillet decorated with two rows of leaf-work motifs and the openings in the galleries, where short fluted pilasters alternate with columns, bear witness to the second phase of construction. There is a close correspondence between the interior and exterior forms of the building. The nave extends into a raised choir reached by means of a circular stairway. The altar stands at the rear of the central apse and there is a quatrefoil baptistry below the southern apse.

Georgius Mathei Dalmaticus built the cathedral, with the exception of the nave and the aisle walls, by assembling slabs of stone and the contiguous sections of pilaster and ribbing using a particular technique for the joints. The roofing of the aisles, as well as that of the apses and the dome, is made from stone 'tiles'. These roofing tiles are laid side by side with their horizontal edges overlapping, and the joints are made by the perfect fit. On the dome the tiles are held in place by stone wedges fitted with great precision and are inserted into the ribs as into a portcullis. This type of construction could well have taken its inspiration from shipbuilding, or from the experience of many artists whose first trade was the working of wood as joiners, cabinet-makers, or model makers. The solution adopted for the cathedral at Šibenik was made possible by the outstanding quality of the stone used, which came from the stone quarries of Veselje, on the island of Brac, which are still in operation to this day.

Source: UNESCO/CLT/WHC
Historical Description

Šibenik is a small town on the Dalmatian coast, opening out on a bay separated from the Adriatic by the Sveti Ante (St Anthony) channel and a multitude of tiny islands.

The town was founded in the 10th century by the Subic family, who were very influential in Croatia at this period. Early in the 12th century it came under the sway of the Kings of Hungary, who granted its independence. In 1116 and 1378 Šibenik suffered at the hands of the Venetians, who were vying with the kingdom of Hungary for control of the Dalmatian coast. In 1298 a papal bull issued by Boniface VIII created the Diocese of Šibenik. The Venetians took the town in 1412, renaming it Sebenico and holding it until the fall of the Venetian Republic in 1797.

The cathedral of St James owes its present appearance to three successive periods of construction between 9 April 1431, when the first stone was laid, and 1535. The first phase (1431-41) was carried out under the supervision of master mason Francesco di Giacomo and his journeymen Pincino and Busato, who began raising the west front and the walls of the nave and aisles as far as the first cornice. This first phase of construction in the Gothic style of northern Italy was completed by the west and north doors, the work of Lombard sculptor Bonino da Milano.

In 1441 Dalmatian architect and sculptor Georgius Mathei Dalmaticus (Juraj Matejev Dalmatinac) was charged with the resumption of work, which he continued until just before his death in 1473. In order to transform the simple basilica into a more imposing edifice, he drew up new plans for a more ornate east section (transept, three apses, a baptistery, and a sacristy) and thought of raising a dome over the transept crossing. His projects were only partially executed, however, and came to a halt once the apses were complete. This period also saw the completion of the nave and the vaulting over the aisles. Georgius Mathei Dalmaticus mingled the forms of late Gothic with those of the early Renaissance. Many artists came to join him in working on the Cathedral, the most famous being the architect Andrija Aleši, originally from Durrës (Albania), who worked with the successor to Georgius Mathei Dalmaticus on the third phase of the cathedral's construction.

This final phase was directed between 1475 and 1505 by Niccolò di Giovanni Fiorentino, an Italian architect and sculptor (active from 1467 to 1506) who retained the overall conception of the structure, the use of stone as the only material, and the method of joining the slabs of stone developed by his predecessor. He raised the wall studded with windows and the vaults of the nave, the vaulting over the galleries on the aisles, choir, and transept, the octagonal drum, and the dome in the early Renaissance style. He completed the trefoil of the west front (1475-1505), to which a rose window was added in 1555. The Cathedral was consecrated in 1555.

Source: Advisory Body Evaluation