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The Historic Centre (Chorá) with the Monastery of Saint-John the Theologian and the Cave of the Apocalypse on the Island of Pátmos

The Historic Centre (Chorá) with the Monastery of Saint-John the Theologian and the Cave of the Apocalypse on the Island of Pátmos

The small island of Pátmos in the Dodecanese is reputed to be where St John the Theologian wrote both his Gospel and the Apocalypse. A monastery dedicated to the ‘beloved disciple’ was founded there in the late 10th century and it has been a place of pilgrimage and Greek Orthodox learning ever since. The fine monastic complex dominates the island. The old settlement of Chorá, associated with it, contains many religious and secular buildings.

Centre historique (Chorá) avec le monastère de Saint Jean « le théologien » et la grotte de l'Apocalypse sur l'île de Patmos

La petite île de Pátmos, dans le Dodécanèse, est réputée être l’endroit où saint Jean le Théologien a écrit son Évangile et l’Apocalypse. Un monastère dédié au « disciple bien aimé » y a été fondé à la fin du Xe siècle. Il est depuis cette époque un lieu de pèlerinage et d’enseignement orthodoxe grec permanent. Ce magnifique complexe monastique domine l’île, et l’ancien établissement de Chorá, qui lui est associé, abrite de nombreux édifices religieux et séculiers.

موقع كورا التاريخي ودير مار يوحنا اللاهوتي ومغارة نهاية العالم على جزيرة باتموس

تُعرف جزيرة باتموس الصغيرة الواقعة في جزيرة الدودكانيز بأنها المكان الذي وضع فيه القديس يوحنا الحبيب نسخته من الإنجيل وكتاب الرؤيا المعروف بـ"رؤيا يوحنا". وتأسس في أواخر القرن العاشر دير خُصّص لتلميذ المسيح، ليصبح هذا الدير منذ تلك الفترة وعلى مر العصور مكان حج وتعليم لطائفة الروم الأروثوذوكس. هذا المجمع الكنسي الرائع هو الصرح الطاغي على جزيرة باتموس، ويضمّ موقع كورا القديم المتصل بها العديد من الأبنية الدينية والمدنية.

source: UNESCO/ERI

帕特莫斯岛的天启洞穴和圣约翰修道院

多德卡尼斯群岛的帕特莫斯小岛由于圣约翰神学家在此创作《福音书》和《启示录》而驰名。10世纪后期,有人在这里为“挚爱的门徒”修建了一座修道院,从此,这里便一直是一个朝圣地,也是希腊东正教学习之地。岛上占主体地位的是精美的修道院建筑群,焦耳城(Chorá)古老的住区及其周围有许多宗教和世俗的建筑。

source: UNESCO/ERI

Исторический центр (Хора) с монастырем Иоанна Богослова и пещерой Апокалипсиса на острове Патмос

Небольшой остров Патмос, входящий в состав архипелага Додеканес, известен тем, что здесь Св. Иоанн Богослов создал свое Евангелие и Апокалипсис. Монастырь, посвященный «любимому ученику», был основан в конце Х в., и с того времени он является местом паломничества и греческого православного образования. Прекрасный монастырский комплекс доминирует на острове, с ним также связано старое поселение Хора с церковными и гражданскими зданиями.

source: UNESCO/ERI

Centro histórico (Chorá) con el monasterio de San Juan “el Teólogo” y la gruta del Apocalipsis en la isla de Patmos

Situada en el archipiélago del Dodecaneso, la pequeña isla de Patmos, es célebre por ser el lugar donde San Juan el Teólogo escribió su Evangelio y el Apocalipsis. A finales del siglo X se fundó en la isla un monasterio dedicado al “discípulo bien amado”, que se convirtió en lugar de peregrinación y centro de enseñanza de la Iglesia Ortodoxa griega. Este magnífico conjunto monástico domina la isla, mientras que el antiguo y vecino asentamiento humano de Chorá cuenta con numerosos edificios religiosos y civiles.

source: UNESCO/ERI

パトモス島の“神学者”聖ヨハネ修道院と黙示録の洞窟の歴史地区(コーラ)
ギリシア南東部、エーゲ海に浮かぶドデカニソス諸島の島。ローマ時代の流刑地で、西暦94年、聖ヨハネが流刑中に福音書と黙示録を著した。聖ヨハネ修道院は11世紀の建立。島の中央に“黙示録の洞窟(黙示録修道院)”がある。歴史地区ホーラは「主要な町」の意味で、修道院の黒ずんだ城壁を白く取り囲んで広がっている。古くは16世紀の建造。

source: NFUAJ

Historisch centrum (Chorá) met het klooster van Sint Johannes

Het kleine eiland Patmos – onderdeel van de Dodecanes Eilanden – wordt beschouwd als de plaats waar de apostel Johannes zowel zijn Evangelie als de Openbaring schreef. Een klooster gewijd aan de ‘geliefde discipel’ werd daar eind 10e eeuw gesticht. Het is sinds die tijd een plaats van bedevaart en Grieks-orthodox onderricht geweest. Het prachtige kloostercomplex domineert het eiland. De oude nederzetting van Chorá die ermee verbonden is, bevat veel religieuze en seculiere gebouwen. Er zijn maar weinig andere plaatsen in de wereld waar religieuze ceremonies, die terug gaan op de vroegchristelijke periode, nog steeds ongewijzigd worden beoefend.

Source: unesco.nl

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the Monastery of Saint John "the Theologian" and the Cave of the Apocalypse on the Island of Pátmos © Sacred Sites
Outstanding Universal Value

Brief synthesis

The small island of Pátmos in the Dodecanese is reputed to be where Saint John the Theologian wrote both his Gospel and the Apocalypse around 95 AD. A monastery dedicated to the ‘beloved disciple’ was founded there in 1088 by Hosios Christodoulos Latrinos and has been a place of pilgrimage and Greek Orthodox learning ever since. Its foundation was part of Emperor Alexios I Komnenos’ policy to colonize the islands and create a base in the Aegean. The colonization of the Chóra of Pátmos took place gradually around the fortified monastic complex, which always had the absolute dominance over the island as the main governor and regulator of the organization of the social life of the islanders.

The monastery of St John the Theologian is a unique creation, integrating monastic values within a fortified enclosure, which has evolved in response to changing political and economic circumstances for over 900 years. It has the external appearance of a polygonal castle, with towers and crenellations. It is also home to a remarkable collection of manuscripts, icons, and liturgical artwork and objects.

The earliest elements, belonging to the 11th century, are the Katholikón (main church) of the monastery, the Chapel of Panagía, and the refectory. The north and west sides of the courtyard are lined with the white walls of monastic cells and the south side is formed by the Tzafara, a two-storeyed arcade of 1698 built in dressed stone, whilst the outer narthex of the Katholikón forms the east side.

Midway along the road that winds steeply up from Skála to Chorá is the Cave of the Apocalypse (Spilaion Apokalypseos), where according to tradition St John dictated the Book of Revelation and his Gospel to his disciple Prochoros. This holy place attracted a number of small churches, chapels, and monastic cells, creating an interesting architectural ensemble.

The old settlement of Chóra, associated with it contains many religious and secular buildings. It is one of the best preserved and oldest of the Aegean Chorá. Beginning in the 13th century, the town was expanded by new quarters in the 15th century for refugees from Constantinople (the Alloteina) and in the 17th century from Crete (the Kretika). Paradoxically, perhaps, Patmos thrived as a trading centre under Ottoman occupation, reflected by fine merchants’ houses of the late 16th and 17th centuries in Chorá. The town contains a number of fine small churches. Dating mostly from the 17th and 18th centuries, they contain important mural paintings, icons, and other church furnishings.

The elements of the property are unique in several ways, considered both as an ensemble and individually. Pátmos is the only example of an Orthodox monastery integrating from its origins a supporting community, the Chorá, built around the hill-top fortifications. While fortified monasteries may be found in other parts of the Orthodox world, the Monastery of Hagios Ioannis Theologos is the only example in Greece of an organized settlement around a fortified monastic complex. 

Criterion (iii): The town of Chóra on the Island of Pátmos is one of the few settlements in Greece that have evolved uninterruptedly since the 12th century. There are few other places in the world where religious ceremonies that date back to the early Christian times are still being practised unchanged. 

Criterion (iv): The Monastery of Saint Ioannis Theologos (Saint John the Theologian) and the Cave of the Apocalypse on the Island of Pátmos, together with the associated medieval settlement of Chóra, constitute an exceptional example of a traditional Greek Orthodox pilgrimage centre of outstanding architectural interest. 

Criterion (vi): The Monastery of Saint Ioannis Theologos and the Cave of the Apocalypse commemorate the site where Saint John the Theologian (Divine), the “Beloved Disciple”, composed two of the most sacred Christian works, his Gospel and the Apocalypse. 

Integrity

The boundaries of the property are adequate to maintain the Outstanding Universal Value of the property. The monastic complex of Saint John the Theologian, the cave of the Apocalypse and the settlement of Chóra itself maintain their basic morphology to the present day. The initial forms have been maintained. The settlement, which developed gradually around the monastery, is still inhabited and continues to be extended but always within specified boundaries and under the strict control and regulations of the appropriate authorities. The alterations that have taken place through the ages and under the influence of the historical conditions allow the visitor to see even today the distinct phases. The principal risks to the property are likely to arise from tourism and the over development of the port of Skála in the property’s wider setting; Pátmos is also in an earthquake zone. 

Authenticity

The active monastic community of Pátmos, apart from safeguarding the artistic and intellectual treasures of the monastery, continues to rescue old traditions and rituals such as the Byzantine ritual of Niptir, which takes place every Wednesday of the Holy Week and revives the dramatic and symbolic event that marks the beginning of the Passion of Christ. Moreover, the activities of the Patmiada School since 1713, one of the most prominent Greek schools, contribute to the survival of authenticity.

The material fabric and design features of the significant elements and their organizational patterns have been well maintained and provide an authentic and credible expression of the property’s stylistic and typological models. The authenticity of the settlement is also ensured by the retention of its morphological features and its building techniques with the use of similar or even the same, as far as this is possible, traditional methods and materials in building new constructions. 

Protection and management requirements

The property is protected by the provisions of the Archaeological Law 3028/2002 “On the Protection of Antiquities and Cultural heritage in general”, and by separate ministerial decrees published in the Official Government Gazette. Protection and management are carried out by the Ministry of Culture, Education and Religious Affairs through the responsible regional service (Ephorate of Antiquities of the Dodecanese).

The authentic character of the settlement at Chóra of Pátmos survives due to the protective legislative regulations (ministerial decisions published in the Official Government Gazette) implemented in the area already since 1948 when the island of Pátmos was integrated to the Hellenic state. Any intervention in the area is prohibited without the approval of the Ephorate of Antiquities of the Dodecanese.

Effective site management is also achieved through cooperation between secular and ecclesiastical authorities in all areas of common concern. Their efforts have ensured that many of the tourism abuses found in other parts of the Aegean have been avoided, preserving the tranquillity appropriate to the sacred values of Pátmos.

In recent years, the following works have been completed through the European Union funding: a) the restorations of two complexes in Chóra, that of Nikolaides’ mansion and the monastery of Zoodochos Pege and b) the conservation of the monastic complex of the Apocalypse.