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Historic Centre of the Town of Diamantina

Historic Centre of the Town of Diamantina

Diamantina, a colonial village set like a jewel in a necklace of inhospitable rocky mountains, recalls the exploits of diamond prospectors in the 18th century and testifies to the triumph of human cultural and artistic endeavour over the environment.

Centre historique de la ville de Diamantina

Diamantina est une ville coloniale insérée comme un joyau dans un massif montagneux inhospitalier. Elle illustre l’aventure des chercheurs de diamant au XVIIIe siècle et témoigne de l’emprise culturelle et artistique de l’être humain sur son environnement vivant.

الوسط التاريخي لمدينة ديامانتينا

ديامانتينا، مدينة مستعمرة مدمجة كالجوهرة في المرتفعات الوعرة، تجسّد مغامرة المنقبّين عن الماس في القرن الثامن عشر وتشهد على السيطرة الثقافية والفنية التي يفرضها الإنسان على محيطه الحيّ.

source: UNESCO/ERI

蒂阿曼蒂那城历史中心

蒂阿曼蒂那位于无人居住的荒凉岩石山脉之中,原为殖民地村庄。如果说绵绵山脉是条项链的话,蒂阿曼蒂那就是项链上的一颗宝石。这个小城展示给世人的是一幅18世纪采矿人挖掘钻石的场景,同时也是人类文化和艺术战胜环境的证明。

source: UNESCO/ERI

Исторический центр города Диамантина

Диамантина - колониальное поселение, располагающееся в окружении суровых скалистых гор, воссоздает жизнь эпохи искателей алмазов в XVIII в. Город является символом триумфа культурной и художественной активности человека, проживавшего в неблагоприятных природных условиях.

source: UNESCO/ERI

Centro histórico de Diamantina

Diamantina es una ciudad colonial engastada como una piedra preciosa en un inhóspito macizo montañoso. Es un testimonio de la aventura de los buscadores de diamantes del siglo XVIII, así­ como del influjo ejercido por las realizaciones culturales y artí­sticas del ser humano en su marco de vida.

source: UNESCO/ERI

ディアマンティーナ歴史地区

source: NFUAJ

Historisch centrum van de stad Diamantina

Diamantina is een koloniaal stadje, gelegen als een juweel in een ketting van rotsachtige bergen. Het herinnert aan de exploitatie van diamantzoekers in de 18e eeuw en getuigt van de overwinning van de mens op zijn omgeving door culturele en artistieke inspanningen. De stad ligt op de helling van een heuvel met een hoogteverschil van 150 meter in de staat Minas Gerais, 350 kilometer van Belo Horizonte en 710 kilometer van Brasilia. Het land van de Diamantina regio bestaat voornamelijk uit kwartsitische rotsen en leisteen. Hieraan dankt het gebied zijn bergachtige en kleurrijke uiterlijk en arme poreuze grond met rotsplanten.

Source: unesco.nl

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Festa de Nossa Senhora do Rosario dos Homens Pretos de Diamantina Religious Festival of the black people of Diamantina, Dance and Music, Minas Gerais, Brazil Fête religieuse des hommes noirs de Diamantina, Musique et Danses, Minas Gerais, Brésil, Kirchliche Feier der schwarzen Bevölkerung, Bevoelkerung von Diamantina, Musik und Tanz, Minas Gerais, Brasilien © M & G Therin-Weise
Outstanding Universal Value

Brief synthesis

In the heart of arid and rocky mountains in north-east Minas Gerais, the Historic Center of Diamantina rises 150m up the side of a steep valley, with winding and uneven streets following the natural topography. The Baroque architecture differs from that of other Brazilian towns in being of wood, and is distinguished by its geometry and details indicating transference on a modest scale of Portuguese architectural features. Churches have similar colours and textures as civil buildings, and most have only one tower. The regularly aligned 18th and 19th century semi-detached houses with one or two floors are painted in bright colours on a white ground, and contrast with the grey flagstone paving of the streets.

The historic centre testifies to the conquest of Brazil’s interior regions, illustrating how explorers, diamond prospectors, and representatives of the Portuguese Crown forged an original culture in the 18th century, adapting their origins to the realities of the Americas. 

Criterion (ii):  Diamantina shows how explorers of the Brazilian territory, diamond prospectors, and representatives of the Crown were able to adapt European models to an American context in the 18th century, thus creating a culture that was faithful to its roots yet completely original. 

Criterion (iv):  The urban and architectural group of Diamantina, perfectly integrated into a wild landscape, is a fine example of an adventurous spirit combined with a quest for refinement so typical of human nature. 

Integrity

The Portuguese inspired architectural patterns and urban outline of the Historic Center of Diamantina remains well preserved, both elements ingeniously etched into the surrounding rocky hillsides of varying altitudes that give rise to a stratified city separated from its highest to its lowest points by as much as 150 meters. This association between the natural environment and the urban space created a landscape in which the rugged surrounding territory merges seamlessly with the artistic body of the urban complex. 

Authenticity

The urban complex is exemplified by a special configuration marked by the implementation of structures in continuous fashion, cadenced and scaled to the uneven terrain, giving expression to an urban fabric which has been preserved since its formation in the 18th century, as recorded in a variety of maps from the period. 

The city’s churches were built based on the same logic applied to the surrounding constructions, reinforcing the architectural complex and a homogeneity characterized by a sober and basic, yet refined, aesthetic of geometric facades. 

The historical formation of the former Arraial do Tijuco, continuous appropriation of the related spaces and public roadways through the centuries by traditional religious festivals, and the predominantly residential use of the area are the key elements underlying the attributes that confer on the site its singularity and Outstanding Universal Value. 

Protection and management requirements 

Protection of the Historical Center of Diamantina was first introduced in 1938 following recognition as a Brazilian Cultural Heritage Site under Process 64-T-38 and effective application of that protection through Decree-Law No. 25/37. Since the 1950s, the National Institute of Historical and Artistic Heritage (Instituto do Patrimônio Histórico e Artístico Nacional – IPHAN) has worked with the city, including through an emergency works team active  at the site. 

In 1982 and 1986, the National Historical and Artistic Heritage Service (Serviço do Patrimônio Histórico e Artístico Nacional – SPHAN/National Pro-Memory Foundation (Fundação Nacional Pró-Memória) developed two technical guidelines (Guidelines No. 01/82 and 01/86) for Vila Santa Isabel, a new section created from  removal of land from the Santa Casa de Caridade of Diamantina, with a view to organizing the implementation of new structures to ensure more effective integration of the area with the landmarked site. 

The Diamantina Master Plan (Municipal Law No. 035/99), the object of recommendations by ICOMOS for purposes of recognition as a UNESCO Historical Site, establishes parameters for land use and occupation in both the Historical Site and surrounding areas, including at the foot of the Cristais Mountains. An addition safeguard in the legislation involved creation of the Technical Support Group (Grupo de Apoio Técnico – G.A.T) in order to promote joint review between IPHAN and the Municipal Government of new construction projects in areas surrounding the Historical Site. 

In 2002, the IPHAN-MG superintendence issued Directive 12/2002 governing the limits and rules for urban-architectural intervention in the city’s architectural and urban complex and the surrounding areas. Among other measures, the Directive enhanced key municipal provision on land use and occupation in areas around the Historical Site. 

The State Institute of Historical and Artistic Heritage (Instituto Estadual do Patrimônio Histórico e Artístico  – IEPHA) designated the Cristais Mountains a Natural Property through a Provisional Landmark Designation approved on December 14, 2000, and a Permanent Landmark Designation approved by the State Cultural Heritage Council (Conselho Estadual do Patrimônio Cultural – CONEP) on November 19, 2010, expanding the legal protection of the natural monument, a landscape recognized as inseparable from the Historical Site. 

The Monumenta Program, a joint initiative between IPHAN/Ministry of Culture and the Municipal Government has devoted significant financial resources toward management of the cultural heritage and the recovery of essential public and private historical landmark spaces and buildings in the city. 

Land marking studies in connection with the Cristais Mountains by IPHAN are currently under development, with a view to strengthening protection of the natural monument, one critical to understanding the context and singularity of the Diamantina Historical Site as a unique landscape.

Long Description

Diamantina shows how explorers of the Brazilian territory, diamond prospectors, and representatives of the Crown were able to adapt European models to an American context in the 18th century, thus creating a culture that was faithful to its roots yet completely original. This urban and architectural group, perfectly integrated into a wild landscape, is a fine example of an adventurous spirit combined with a quest for refinement that is so typical of human nature.

The town lies in the heart of the arid, rocky mountains of East-Central Brazil. It is in the State of Minas Gerais, 350 km from Belo Horizonte and 710 km from Brasilia, on the slope of a hill, spread over a difference of height of 150 m. The land of the Diamantina region is composed almost exclusively of quartzite rocks and schist, which give this region its mountainous and colourful aspect, but it also has a poor, permeable soil with a rupestrine vegetation.

The morphology of the town, inspired by the model of a Portuguese medieval town, has developed while respecting the continuity of the first settlement. The 18th-century built-up area has become denser without losing its original character. The layout of roads, lanes, alleys and public squares is the result of a natural occupation of the site, given the demanding topography, and it reflects the traffic which grew between the mining hamlets over the years.

The centre of the old town has a greater density, and it is situated on ground that is slightly flatter than the outskirts. The architecture of Diamantina is of Baroque inspiration like most other mining villages in Brazil. However, it has a number of specific features which distinguish it from the traditional Portuguese colonial model. Its geometry and certain details confirm that the colonizers sought to transpose on a modest scale some of the features of the architecture of their home country to their adopted land, as was equally the case for music and the arts.

The streets of the town are paved with large, flat, grey flagstones laid in such a way as to form a type of paving known as capistranas, named after President João Capistrano Bandeira de Melo, who introduced it in 1877. This picturesque paving creates a contrast between the road and the casario, a regular alignment of 18th- and 19th-century semi-detached houses, with one or two floors. Their facades, in bright colours on a white ground, are borrowed systematically from the same typology, and they display certain affiliations with the Portuguese Mannerist architecture.

Most of the churches and religious buildings in Diamantina have been incorporated inside the regular and homogeneous complex of the casario, usually standing back only slightly from the alignment. This reveals that the spiritual power was closely related with the population, which distinguished it from, and no doubt subjugated it to, temporal power, given the very few church squares and areas set aside for social intercourse and public events. The construction of the churches is similar to that of civil buildings: they have the same colours and textures; the churches have only one bell tower, usually erected on the side of the building; and the pediment is in sculpted wood.

The town has a few architectural curiosities of interest, especially the Old Market Hall constructed in 1835 and recently restored, the Passadiço, a covered footbridge in blue and white wood spanning the Rua da Glória to join the two buildings of the Eschwege Geology Centre, the muxarabi of the Antônio Torres Library, a kind of balcony completely enclosed by a wooden lattice, and finally the chafariz of the Rua Direita, near the cathedral, a sculpted fountain which guarantees that whoever drinks from it will return to Diamantina.

Source: UNESCO/CLT/WHC
Historical Description

The town of Diamantina is like an oasis lying in the heart of the arid and rocky mountains of East-Central Brazil. It is in the State of Minas Gerais, 350km from Belo Horizonte and 710km from Brasilia, on the slope of a hill, spread over a difference of height of 150m. It developed in the 18th century in the southern Espinhaço Chain, at an altitude of 1200m, surrounded by the Serro dos Cristais in the valley of the Jequitinhonoha river. The land of the Diamantina region is composed almost exclusively of quartzite rocks and schist, which give this region its mountainous and colourful aspect, but it also has a poor, permeable soil with a rupestrine vegetation. Its geological formations have shaped both the beauty of its landscape and its economic development.

One of the expeditions undertaken from São Paolo in 1713 to explore the interior of the Brazilian territory led to the establishment of one of the settlements of the Arraial do Tijuco, which was later to become Diamantina. Large quantities of diamonds were found on the mountain slopes and along the rivers of the region. As the best deposits were concentrated in the valley of the Tijuco stream, a small tributary of the Rio Grande, its banks were chosen as the site for a small hamlet called Burgalhau. However, unlike what happened in other Portuguese-speaking towns on the continent, such as Ouro Preto, the growth and consolidation of the Arraial led to the discovery in 1720 of an unsuspected source of wealth, diamonds. In this respect, the history of Diamantina is different from that of other mining towns in Brazil.

When the Portuguese Crown discovered the existence of this source of wealth in 1731, it set up a new body to administer the region, the Demarcação Diamantina, which encompassed the former Arraial do Tijuco and other mining hamlets in the neighbourhood. In 1734, it created the Diamond Intendancy which moved to Tijuco, already the biggest settlement in the region. The Intendancy was responsible for controlling the extraction and sale of diamonds. Initially, there was the so-called "period of the contracts," established in 1739, when mining rights were granted to private monopolies. In 1771, the Crown took back the ownership of this resource and entrusted the management of its mining to the Real Extração do Diamante which continued to operate until 1845. The royal monopoly was then handled by the Regimento Diamantino which, it was claimed, was manned by more administrators than soldiers.

As it was governed by the State, Tijuco did not become a vila, that is to say, an entity bigger than a hamlet but smaller than a town, until 1832, ten years after the creation of Brazil. It then had the right to have its own local government. It was only in 1838, in recognition of its importance at regional level, that Tijuco was elevated to the rank of town. In 1845, the Real Extração was dissolved, and the mining leases signed under the supervision of the Inspetoria dos Terrenos Diamantinos were cancelled in 1906 with the dissolution of the Inspetoria itself. In the meantime, the first mechanical mining companies, diamond-cutting workshops, and silversmiths and goldsmiths were set up in the region. Unfortunately, the discovery of richer and better-quality deposits in South Africa caused the dramatic collapse of mining activities in Diamantina.

At the end of the 19th century, the utopian project of a textile industry in Diamantina led to the creation of Biri Biri, an idyllic industrial establishment built in close harmony with the very scenic landscape, about 12km from the town. Created out of nothing to make this dream come true, like the spontaneous villages set up by diamond hunters near the mining sites, the Biri Biri complex played an important role in the local economy, at least for a while. The industry did not survive but the village site has lost nothing of its atmosphere or charm. In 1914, the railway ran up to Diamantina, thus confirming its role as an economic centre and crossroads of the region. The railway closed down in 1973.

As the town suffered from so few disruptions since the decline of mining in the 19th century, its old fabric has been well protected and has survived almost intact.

Source: Advisory Body Evaluation