Holy Trinity Column in Olomouc
Holy Trinity Column in Olomouc
This memorial column, erected in the early years of the 18th century, is the most outstanding example of a type of monument specific to central Europe. In the characteristic regional style known as Olomouc Baroque and rising to a height of 35 m, it is decorated with many fine religious sculptures, the work of the distinguished Moravian artist Ondrej Zahner.
Colonne de la Sainte Trinité à Olomouc
Cette colonne commémorative, érigée dans les premières années du XVIIIe siècle, est l'exemple le plus remarquable d'un type de monument spécifique à l'Europe centrale. Réalisée dans le style régional caractéristique connu sous le nom de « baroque Olomouc » et haute de 35 m, elle est ornée de plusieurs superbes sculptures religieuses, œuvres du grand artiste morave Ondrej Zahner.
عمود الثالوث الأقدس في أولوموتس
يعد هذا العمود التذكاري الذي رفع في الأعوام الأولى من القرن الثامن عشر النموذج الأكثر فرادة لنمط بنياني خاص بأوروبا الوسطى. وقد تم صنع العمود الذي يرتفع الى 35 متراً حسب الطراز المحلي المعروف باسم "باروك أولوموتس"، تزيّنه منحوتات دينية رائعة أبدعها الفنان المورافي الكبير أوندريه زاهنر.
圣柱建于18世纪早期，是中欧地区同类建筑最杰出的典范。圣柱属于一种独特的地区建筑风格——奥洛穆茨巴洛克风格(Olomouc Baroque)，高35米，柱身以出自摩拉维亚的艺术家昂德黑扎内(Ondrej Zahner)之手的许多精美的宗教雕刻装饰。
Колонна Св. Троицы в городе Оломоуц
Эта воздвигнутая в начале XVIII в. мемориальная колонна – наиболее выдающийся пример памятников, типичных для Центральной Европы. Построенная в характерном местном стиле, известном как «оломоуцкое барокко», колонна достигает в высоту 35 м. Она украшена множеством прекрасных религиозных скульптур работы выдающегося моравского художника Ондржея Загнера.
Columna de la Santísima Trinidad en Olomouc
Erigida en los primeros años del siglo XVIII, esta columna conmemorativa es el ejemplo más destacado de este tipo de monumentos característicos de Europa Central. Construido en el estilo regional denominado “barroco de Olomouc”, el monumento tiene 35 metros de altura y está ornamentado con soberbias esculturas religiosas del célebre artista moravo Ondrej Zahner.
Zuil van de Heilige drie-eenheid in Olomouc
De Zuil van de Heilige drie-eenheid werd gebouwd in de vroege jaren van de 18e eeuw. De zuil is ontworpen in de karakteristieke stijl van deze streek, die bekendstaat als Olomouc Barok. Het monument loopt op tot een hoogte van 35 meter en is versierd met veel mooie religieuze sculpturen; het werk van de vooraanstaande Moravische kunstenaar Ondrej Zahner. Zuilen zoals die in Olomouc vormden het hoogtepunt van de Centraal-Europese barok. Het zijn opvallende materiële getuigenissen van het religieus geloof in dit gebied, waarbij de zuil in Olomouc de meest opvallende uiting vertegenwoordigt.
Justification for Inscription
Criterion (i): The Olomouc Holy Trinity Column is one of the most exceptional examples of the apogee of central European Baroque artistic expression.
Criterion (iv): The Holy Trinity Column constituted a unique material demonstration of religious faith in central Europe during the Baroque period, and the Olomouc example represents its most outstanding expression.
The Olomouc Holy Trinity Column is one of the most exceptional examples of the apogee of central European Baroque artistic expression. Columns of this type constituted a unique material demonstration of religious faith in central Europe during the Baroque period, and the Olomouc example represents its most outstanding expression.
In the reconstruction following the Thirty Years' War (1648-50) the city of Olomouc took on a new appearance. Many impressive public and private buildings were constructed in a local variant of the prevailing style, which became known as 'Olomouc Baroque'. The most characteristic expression of this style was a group of monuments (columns and fountains), of which the Holy Trinity Column is the crowning glory. Václav Render submitted the project to the City Council and work started in the spring of 1717. In this first stage, in the 1720s, the first part of the sculptural decoration was carried out by the Olomouc sculptor Filip Sattler. The remaining sculptural work was carried out in 1745-52 by the distinguished Moravian sculptor Ondrej Zahner (1709-52). The Column was ceremonially consecrated on 9 September 1754, in the presence of the Empress Maria Theresa.
In essence, the basic ground plan of the Holy Trinity Column is derived from a circle 17m in diameter. From the circular base, which has eighteen peripheral guard stones linked by a forged chain, a staircase of seven steps rises to the column's first level, the ground plan of which is hexagonal. The first level comprises a small chapel, again with a circular ground plan. At the points of the hexagon there are six conical balustrades. At the points of the hexagon, supported by six massive pedestals richly decorated on three sides with motifs such as scrolls and acanthus, are to be found the first six larger than life-size statues of saints (c. 220-240 cm) adjoining the body of the chapel on the first level. The first level is richly decorated with fluted pilasters, ribbon motifs, conches, relief cartouches with relief figures of apostles and other masonry details. The same pattern is consistently repeated in both the second and third levels. The second level retains the ground plan of the first, and is crowned by the second group of six statues of saints, placed on isolated pedestals. The third level tops the base of the column. It recedes slightly towards the centre, its periphery furnished again with six massive pedestals carrying the third row of six saints, another row of six relief figures of apostles and rich masonry decoration. This base of the third level supports a monolithic pillar 10 m high and richly decorated with fluting and acanthus motifs. The sculptural group of the Assumption of the Virgin Mary is mounted on the first third of the monolith, the figure of the Virgin Mary supported by a pair of angels. Again, the group is executed on a larger-than-life-size scale, in gilded copper. On the top of the pillar-monolith itself, crowned by a capital featuring scroll and acanthus motifs, there is a group of God the Father giving a blessing and Christ with the cross, both placed on a globe, with the figure of the Archangel Michael below. The entire structure is completed by a radial target-star with a dove in the centre, to symbolize the Holy Spirit. Once more, the entire group is on a larger-than-life-size scale in wrought and gilded copper. The overall height of the column is 35 m.
The concept of the Holy Trinity involved the two principal elements of the essential hierarchy of values in the Baroque period. Faith and religious tradition are intermingled with the idea of the city - its traditions, protection and civil administration. The ideas of Christianity and of citizenship (allegiance to the city in the best meaning of the word) combine here as a triumphal statement in the form of a stone monument.Source: UNESCO/CLT/WHC
Following the Swedish occupation of this largely medieval city at the end of the Thirty Years' War (1648-50), four fifths of Olomouc lay in ruins and more than 90% of its inhabitants had fled. Although it lost its status as the capital of Moravia, it remained an episcopal see and this fact, coupled with the indomitable self-confidence of its citizens, ensured its regeneration.
In the post-war reconstruction the street pattern of the medieval town was respected. However, it took on a new appearance: over the following century many impressive public and private buildings were constructed in a local variant of the prevailing style, which became known as "Olomouc Baroque." The most characteristic expression of this style was a group of monuments (columns and fountains), of which the Holy Trinity Column is the crowning glory.
"... I shall raise a column so high and splendid it shall not have an equal in any other town": these were the words used by Václav Render, Olomouc master stonemason, to describe his project for building a religious column, which was submitted to the City Council on 29 October 1715. The project was approved on 13 January 1716 and work started in the spring of 1717, Render financing and carrying out most of it himself. In 1733, the year of Render's death, the column had reached the height of a single-storey building, with a chapel inside and a central core clad in stone, together with intricate stone-masonry detailing. In this first stage, in the 1720s, the first part of the sculptural decoration was carried out by the Olomouc sculptor Filip Sattler.
In his will Render bequeathed almost all his considerable fortune to the city for the completion of the work. The remaining sculptural work was carried out in 1745-52 by the distinguished Moravian sculptor Ondrej Zahner (1709-52). In the early 1750s, the topmost group and the group representing the Assumption of the Virgin Mary were cast in copper and gilded by the Olomouc goldsmith Šimon Forstner (1714-73). The Column was ceremonially consecrated on 9 September 1754, in the presence of the Empress Maria Theresa.Source: Advisory Body Evaluation