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Su Nuraxi di Barumini

Su Nuraxi di Barumini

During the late 2nd millennium B.C. in the Bronze Age, a special type of defensive structure known as nuraghi (for which no parallel exists anywhere else in the world) developed on the island of Sardinia. The complex consists of circular defensive towers in the form of truncated cones built of dressed stone, with corbel-vaulted internal chambers. The complex at Barumini, which was extended and reinforced in the first half of the 1st millennium under Carthaginian pressure, is the finest and most complete example of this remarkable form of prehistoric architecture.

Su Nuraxi de Barumini

Au cours du IIe millénaire av. J.-C., à l'âge du bronze, un type de construction défensive connue sous le nom de nuraghi , unique en son genre, se développe en Sardaigne. L'ensemble consiste en tours défensives circulaires en forme de cônes tronqués construites en pierres de taille et dotées de salles intérieures voûtées en encorbellement. L'ensemble de Barumini, qui a été étendu et renforcé au cours de la première moitié du Ie r millénaire sous la pression des Carthaginois, est l'exemple le plus beau et le plus complet de cette remarquable forme d'architecture préhistorique.

سو نوراكسي دو باروميني

خلال الألفية الثانية ق.م.، في العصر البرونزي، نشأ في سردينيا نمط بناء دفاعي فريد من نوعه باسم نوراغي. وتتكون هذه المجموعة من أبراج دفاعية دائرية بشكل مخاريط مبتورة مبنية من حجر مقصوب ومجهّزة بقاعات داخلية مقبّبة بخَرجة. وتشكل مجموعة باروميني التي وُسِّعت وعُزِّزت خلال النصف الأول من الألفية الأولى بضغط من القرطاجيين، المثال الأكثر جمالاً وكمالاً على هذا الشكل الرائع من الهندسة المعمارية لحقبة ما قبل التاريخ.

source: UNESCO/ERI

巴鲁米尼的努拉格

公元前2000年后期的铜器时代,一种特殊类型的防御建筑在撒丁岛修建起来,这就是举世无双的努拉格。这一综合结构包括用修琢的石头堆砌而成的锥状环型防御塔,以及在塔内用梁托支撑成的套间。这一坐落在巴鲁米尼的综合结构,由于受迦太基人的压力,直到公元1000年中叶还在修整和加固,是史前同类形式建筑中修建得最好和保存最完整的典范。

source: UNESCO/ERI

«Су-Нуракси» - древние укрепления в Барумини (остров Сардиния)

В конце 2-го тысячелетия до н.э., во времена бронзового века, на острове Сардиния были созданы укрепления особого типа, известные как nuraghi (нуракси), подобных которым не существует нигде в мире. Комплекс состоит из круглых оборонительных башен в форме усеченных конусов, выполненных из шлифованного камня, со сводчатыми внутренними помещениями. Комплекс в Барумини, расширенный и усиленный в первой половине 1-го тысячелетия в связи с давлением Карфагена, является прекрасным и наиболее полным примером этой замечательной формы доисторической архитектуры.

source: UNESCO/ERI

Su Nuraxi de Barumini

A finales del segundo milenio a.C., en la Edad de Bronce, se creó en la isla de Cerdeña un tipo de estructura defensiva llamada nuraghi, sin parangón en el mundo. Los nuraghi son torres circulares, en forma de conos truncados, construidas con sillares y provistas de cámaras internas con bóvedas en saledizo. El ejemplo más bello y completo de esta notable construcción arquitectónica prehistórica lo ofrece el conjunto de Barumini, que fue ampliado y reforzado en la primera mitad del primer milenio a.C. ante la presión de los cartagineses.

source: UNESCO/ERI

スー・ヌラージ・ディ・バルーミニ

source: NFUAJ

Su Nuraxi di Barumini

Tijdens het eind van het 2e millennium voor Christus, in de bronstijd, werd een speciaal type verdedigingsstructuur ontwikkeld op het eiland Sardinië, bekend onder de naam Nuraghi. Van dit systeem is nergens ter wereld een equivalent gevonden. Het complex bestaat uit ronde, defensieve torens in de vorm van afgeknotte kegels, gebouwd van uitgehouwen steen, met uitkragende, gewelfde interne erkerkamers. De verdedigingsstructuur op Barumini werd uitgebreid en versterkt in de eerste helft van het 1e millennium onder druk van de Carthaagse heersers. Het vormt het mooiste en meest complete voorbeeld van deze opmerkelijke vorm van prehistorische architectuur.

Source: unesco.nl

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Su Nuraxi di Barumini © Nomination File
Justification for Inscription

The Committee decided to inscribe this property on the basis of cultural criteria (i), (iii) and (iv), considering that the nuraghe of Sardinia, of which Su Nuraxi is the pre-eminent example, represent an exceptional response to political and social conditions, making an imaginative and innovative use of the materials and techniques available to a prehistoric island community.

Long Description

The nuraghi of Sardinia, of which Su Nuraxi is the pre-eminent example, represent an exceptional response to political and social conditions, making an imaginative and innovative use of the materials and techniques available to a prehistoric island community.

During the middle and late Bronze Age (c . 1500-800 BC) on Sardinia a unique form of architecture developed: circular defensive towers in the form of truncated cones built from dressed stone, with corbel-vaulted internal chambers. Some (as at Barumini) were surrounded by quadrilobate enclosures consisting of towers linked by massive walls. Villages of small circular-plan houses developed around these strongpoints.

The precise dating of the period of building the nuraghi on Sardinia is still the subject of debate among scholars, as there is some conflict between radiocarbon dates and those obtained by conventional archaeological stratigraphy. The influence of the Mycenaean tholos tombs, reflected in the corbelled roofs, now favours an earlier rather than a later dating. It is generally accepted that the central tower at Barumini dates from the later 2nd millennium BC.

The central defensive structures are considered to have been built by single families or clans. As Sardinian society evolved in a more complex and hierarchical fashion, there was a tendency for the isolated towers to attract additional structures, for social and defensive reasons. The major effort towards the extension and elaboration of the defensive works at Barumini is dated to the early Iron Age (10th-8th centuries BC) when Sardinia was exposed to Carthaginian incursions. It is significant that the larger nuraghic settlements of this type are located on those parts of the coast, or on the wide coastal plain of the eastern half of the island (as is the case of Su Nuraxi), that were most vulnerable to seabome attacks. It was during this period that the defences at Barumini and elsewhere were strengthened and the villages accreted around the central defences for protection. They became in effect small urban settlements, housing self-sufficient communities with their own range of craftsmen.

Some time in the 7th century BC, Su Nuraxi was sacked by the Carthaginians and the defensive works were slighted. However, it continued as a settlement, the houses being rebuilt in a different style. With the Roman conquest of the island in the 2nd century BC most of the nuraghi went out of use. However, excavations have shown that there were people living at Su Nuraxi until the 3rd century AD.

The principal (and earliest) feature of Su Nuraxi is a massive central tower or keep, built from large dressed stones without the use of mortar (drystone construction). It consists of three chambers, one upon the other and linked by a spiral staircase (the third is only fragmentary). The ceilings of the chambers are of corbelled construction. The structure probably stood originally to a height of at least 18.5m. The four subsidiary towers added later are linked by a massive stone curtain wall. The courtyard that they form is entered through a narrow gate at ground level on the south-east side. This was later sealed and access to the citadel would have been by means of a ladder or some other installation controlled from the interior.

These walls were in their turn enlarged and strengthened, and at the same time a second enclosure was constructed, which enclosed the domestic buildings that had been built round the keep in the intervening period. These are for the most part small, circular stone structures consisting of a single room, but one is much larger, 7m in diameter with a bench running round the inside of the walls. This is interpreted as a council chamber associated with some form of urban administration.

After the sacking of the settlement and the dismantling of the defences by the Carthaginians, new houses were built. They were in a different form from their predecessors, built using small stones and consisting of several small rooms. At a number of points they abut or overlie the earlier defences.

Source: UNESCO/CLT/WHC
Historical Description

During the Middle and Late Bronze Ages (c 1500-800 BC) on Sardinia a unique form of architecture developed: circular defensive towers in the form of truncated cones built of dressed stone, with corbel-vaulted internal chambers. Some (as at Barumini) were surrounded by quadrilobate enclosures consisting of towers linked by massive walls. Villages of small circular-plan houses developed around these strong-points.

The precise dating of the period of building the nuraghi on Sardinia is still the subject of debate among scholars, since there is some conflict between radiocarbon dates and those obtained by conventional archaeological stratigraphy. The influence of the Mycenaean tholos tombs, reflected in the corbelled roofs, now favours an earlier rather than a later dating. It is generally accepted that the central tower at Barumini dates from the later 2nd millennium BC.

The central defensive structures are considered to have been built by single families or clans. As Sardinian society evolved in a more complex and hierarchical fashion, there was a tendency for the isolated towers to attract additional structures, for social and defensive reasons.

The major effort towards the extension and elaboration of the defensive works at Barumini is dated to the Early Iron Age (10th~8th centuries BC), when Sardinia was exposed to Carthaginian incursions. It is significant that the larger nuraghic settlements of this type are located on those parts of the coast, or on the wide coastal plain of the eastern half of the island (as is the case of Su Nuraxi), that were most vulnerable to seabome attacks. It was during this period that the defences at Barumini and elsewhere were strengthened and the villages accreted around the central defences for protection. They became in effect small urban settlements, housing self-sufficient communities with their own range of craftsmen.

Some time in the 7th century BC Su Nuraxi was sacked by the Carthaginians and the defensive works were slighted. However, it continued as a settlement, the houses being rebuilt in a different style. With the Roman conquest of the island in the 2nd century BC most of the nuraghi went out of use. However, excavations have shown that there were people living at Su Nuraxi until the 3rd century AD.

Source: Advisory Body Evaluation