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Historic Centre of Urbino

Historic Centre of Urbino

The small hill town of Urbino, in the Marche, experienced a great cultural flowering in the 15th century, attracting artists and scholars from all over Italy and beyond, and influencing cultural developments elsewhere in Europe. Owing to its economic and cultural stagnation from the 16th century onwards, it has preserved its Renaissance appearance to a remarkable extent.

Centre historique d’Urbino

Urbino, une petite ville au sommet d'une colline dans la région des Marches, connut au XVe siècle une étonnante prospérité culturelle, attirant des artistes et des érudits de toute l'Italie et au-delà et influençant à son tour le développement d'autres régions d'Europe. Une stagnation économique et culturelle qui commença au XVIe siècle a assuré une exceptionnelle conservation de l'aspect qu'elle avait à la Renaissance.

الوسط التاريخي لمدينة أوربينو

مدينة أوربينو مدينة صغيرة تقع على قمة هضبة في منطقة المارش. وعرفت في القرن الخامس عشر ازدهارًا مذهلاً جاذبةً فنّانين وبَحّاثين من إيطاليا كلها وما وراءها ومؤثّرةً بدورها في تطور مناطق أخرى من أوروبا. وقد أمّن الركود الاقتصادي والثقافي الذي بدأ في القرن السادس عشر حفاظًا استثنائيًا للوجه الذي كان لها في عصر النهضة.

source: UNESCO/ERI

乌尔比诺历史中心

乌尔比诺是一座小山城,位于马奇位,15世纪经历了惊人的文化繁盛期,吸引了整个意大利以及其他地区的艺术家和学者,其文化的发展影响到欧洲的每一角落。16世纪以后,其经济和文化发展进入萧条阶段,文艺复兴时期的原貌正是由此才最大程度地得以保存。

source: UNESCO/ERI

Исторический центр города Урбино

Небольшой город Урбино, расположенный в гористой местности в области Марке, пережил в ХV в. свой наивысший расцвет, привлекавший художников и ученых со всей Италии и из-за ее пределов и повлиявший на развитие культуры в Европе в целом. Вследствие экономической и культурной стагнации, начавшейся с ХVI в., городу удалось сохранить многие свои черты, приобретенные в период Возрождения.

source: UNESCO/ERI

Centro histórico de Urbino

Edificada en lo alto de una colina en la región de las Marcas, la pequeña ciudad Urbino fue en el siglo XV el escenario de un asombroso florecimiento cultural que no sólo atrajo a artistas y eruditos de Italia entera y otros países, sino que además influyó en el desarrollo cultural de diversas regiones de Europa. El estancamiento económico y cultural en que quedó sumida la ciudad a partir del siglo XVI ha contribuido a preservar admirablemente el aspecto que ofrecía en la época del Renacimiento.

source: UNESCO/ERI

ウルビーノ歴史地区

source: NFUAJ

Historisch centrum van Urbino

Het kleine heuvelachtige stadje Urbino – gelegen in de Marche – maakte een grote culturele bloei door in de 15e eeuw. Hierdoor werden kunstenaars en wijsgeren vanuit heel Italië en daarbuiten aangetrokken en culturele ontwikkelingen op verschillende andere plaatsen in Europa beïnvloed. Urbino heeft haar Renaissance uiterlijk opmerkelijk goed behouden door de stagnatie in haar economische en culturele groei vanaf de 16e eeuw. Gedurende de eerste helft van de 19e eeuw zijn er een aantal veranderingen doorgevoerd in het stratenpatroon, wat resulteerde in de afbraak van een paar oude huizen om een aantal pleinen te kunnen vergroten.

Source: unesco.nl

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Historic Centre of Urbino © UNESCO
Justification for Inscription

Criterion (ii): During its short cultural pre-eminence, Urbino attracted some of the most outstanding humanist scholars and artists of the Renaissance, who created there an exceptional urban complex of remarkable homogeneity, the influence of which carried far into the rest of Europe.

Criterion (iv): Urbino represents a pinnacle of Renaissance art and architecture, harmoniously adapted to its physical site and to its medieval precursor in an exceptional manner.

Long Description

During its short cultural pre-eminence, Urbino attracted some of the most outstanding humanist scholars and artists of the Renaissance, who created there an exceptional urban complex of remarkable homogeneity, the influence of which carried far into the rest of Europe.

The 3rd- to 2nd-century BC Roman fortifications enclosed an urban area with an irregular street layout. The city remained within these limits, until it began to expand at the end of the 11th century, requiring the construction of a new system of defensive walls. In the mid-15th century Federico II da Montefeltro, under the rule of whose family the city and duchy of Urbino had passed at the end of the 12th century, undertook a radical rebuilding campaign in the city, although without disturbing its overall urban structure. The walls were rebuilt according to the designs of Leonardo da Vinci. The new Ducal Palace, the work of Luciano Laurana and Francesco di Giorgio Martini, was inserted with the minimum of disturbance, incorporating existing medieval structures. Along with the adjacent cathedral (to the designs of Francesco di Giorgio), the palace became the focus for the urban fabric and its design the model for the new buildings in Renaissance style. On the death of Duke Guidobaldo in 1508, Urbino passed to the Della Rovere family, and from 1631 to 1860 it was incorporated into the Papal States. During this period it experienced a general economic decline. However, the elevation of Gianfrancesco Albani, who was born in Urbino, to the papacy in 1700 as Clement XI saw a major campaign of restoration.

The west facade of the Ducal Palace (Palazzo Ducale) consists of two slender turrets flanking three loggias rising one above another. The main fabric is in brick, the window frames, the two upper loggias, and some decorative features being in stone. Elsewhere, the exterior is more austere, mainly in brick; on the side facing the Piazza del Risorgimento can be seen the facades of two medieval palaces skilfully incorporated by the Dalmatian architect Luciano Laurana into the Renaissance palace. The interior is more lavishly decorated, in particular the main courtyard, with its elegant arcading and carved ornamentation and inscriptions. The main floor (piano nobile ) is reached by means of a fine monumental staircase, the work of Barocci. Most of the rooms, now occupied by the National Museum, make judicious but effective use of carved and painted decoration on walls, door frames, friezes, chimney-pieces and elsewhere. The Throne Room, the largest in the palace, contains a bas-relief of the Lion of St Mark. The Room of the Angels, one of the ducal private apartments, takes its name from the dancing putti on the fine chimney-piece. Its wooden doors are decorated with trompe-l'œil marquetry inlay, designed by Sandro Botticelli, as are the walls of the Duke's Study (which has a ceiling decorated by Florentine artists). Also worthy of special mention is the Sala d'Iole in the duchess's apartments, which takes its name from the carved caryatids on the chimney-piece.

The cathedral (Duomo) was largely rebuilt in the late 18th century, during the papacy of Pius VII, completing the reconstruction left unfinished during the reign of Clement XI. The work of Giuseppe Valadier, Architect of the Holy See, it is in a restrained and elegant neoclassical style and contains some important works of art. The 14th-century Oratory of St John the Baptist has outstanding frescoes by Luca Signorelli. Also from the 14th century is the Church of San Francesco, the interior of which was redesigned in the 18th century. The Church of San Domenico is basically a 13th-century structure, but an articulated portal was added in the Renaissance period, surmounted by an oriel window, the work of Luca della Robbia. The Santa Chiara and San Bernardino monasteries are good examples of Renaissance conventual architecture.

The birthplace of Raphael is a small 14th-century building with a charming interior courtyard. What was probably the artist's first important work, a Madonna and Child, is in the first-floor room where he was born in 1483.

Source: UNESCO/CLT/WHC
Historical Description

The 3rd-2nd century BC Roman fortifications here enclosed an urban area with an irregular street layout. Up to the 11th century the city remained within these limits, but it began to expand at the end of that century, requiring the construction of a new system of defensive walls.

In the mid-15th century Federico II da Montefeltro, under the rule of whose family the city and duchy of Urbino had passed at the end of the 12th century, undertook a radical rebuilding campaign in the city, though without disturbing its overall urban structure. The walls were rebuilt according to the designs of Leonardo da Vinci. The new Ducal Palace, the work of Luciano Laurana and Francesco di Giorgio Martini, was inserted with the minimum of disturbance, incorporating existing medieval structures. Along with the adjacent Cathedral (to the designs of Francesco di Giorgio), the Palace became the focus for the urban fabric and its design the model for the new buildings in Renaissance style such as the Palazzo Luminati erected by the noble families of the ducal court. In other cases, the facades of both private houses and churches were reconstructed in the new style.

On the death of Duke Guidobaldo in 1508 Urbino passed to the Della Rovere family, and from 1631 to 1860 it was incorporated into the Papal States. During this period it experienced a general economic decline. However, the elevation of Gianfrancesco Albani, who was born in Urbino, to the papacy in 1700 as Clement XI saw a major campaign of restoration, especially on the churches and other religious buildings.

In the first half of the 19th century there were some changes to the street pattern, resulting in the demolition of a few old houses to permit the extension of some of the squares. At the same time a new theatre was built alongside Francesco di Giorgio's tower, designed by Vincenzo Ghinelli in a style and proportions that did not conflict with its surroundings.

Source: Advisory Body Evaluation