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Historic Monuments Zone of Querétaro

Historic Monuments Zone of Querétaro

The old colonial town of Querétaro is unusual in having retained the geometric street plan of the Spanish conquerors side by side with the twisting alleys of the Indian quarters. The Otomi, the Tarasco, the Chichimeca and the Spanish lived together peacefully in the town, which is notable for the many ornate civil and religious Baroque monuments from its golden age in the 17th and 18th centuries.

Zone de monuments historiques de Querétaro

Fondation coloniale espagnole, Querétaro présente la singularité d'avoir conservé dès l'origine un quartier géométrique des conquérants jouxtant le quartier aux ruelles tortueuses des indigènes. Otomis, Tarascos, Chichimecas et Espagnols cohabitèrent ainsi harmonieusement dans cette ville célèbre pour ses innombrables monuments baroques, civils et religieux, à la décoration exubérante, qui datent de son âge d'or aux XVIIe et XVIIIe siècles.

منطقة النصب التاريخية في كويريتارو

كويريتارو المنشآة الاستعماريّة الاسبانيّة تتفرّد في المحافظة منذ البدء على حيٍّ هندسي مخصص للغزاة يقع قرب حيٍّ مليءٍ بالازقة المتعرّجة في الريف. فشعوب اوتومي وتاراسكو وشيشيميكا واسبانيا تعايشوا بانسجامٍ في هذه المدينة المشهورة بآثارها الباروكية المدنيّة والدينيّة التي لا تُحصى وبزينتها المُفرطة التي تعود الى عصرها الذهبي أي الى القرنَيْن السابع عشر والثامن عشر.

source: UNESCO/ERI

克雷塔罗历史遗迹区

克雷塔罗这个古老的殖民城,很好地保留了分别由印第安土著人和西班牙占领者所修建的城市街道和建筑,弯弯曲曲的印第安人街道与几何图形般方方正正的西班牙道路形成了鲜明对照。欧多米人、塔拉斯克人、齐齐美卡人和西班牙人在城里和平相处,克雷塔罗城于公元17世纪到18世纪到达了它的黄金时代,现在我们还能看到许多修建于那个时期的奢华的巴洛克式民居建筑和宗教建筑。

source: UNESCO/ERI

Зона исторических памятников в городе Керетаро

Старый колониальный город Керетаро необычен своей планировкой, сочетающей геометрическую сеть улиц в испанской части города и извилистые проходы в индейских кварталах. Город, где индейцы отоми, тараски, чичимеки мирно соседствовали с испанцами, примечателен множеством богато декорированных религиозных и гражданских памятников в стиле барокко, относимых к его «золотому веку» – XVII-XVIII вв.

source: UNESCO/ERI

Zona de monumentos históricos de Querétaro

La vieja ciudad colonial de Querétaro ofrece la singularidad de haber conservado su núcleo indígena primigenio de calles serpenteantes, junto con los barrios trazados con arreglo a un plan geométrico por los conquistadores españoles. Otomis, tarascos, chichimecas y españoles cohabitaron pacíficamente en esta ciudad, reputada por sus innumerables edificios civiles y religiosos de estilo barroco, profusamente ornamentados, que datan de su edad de oro (siglos XVII y XVIII).

source: UNESCO/ERI

ケレタロの歴史史跡地区

source: NFUAJ

Historische monumentenzone van Querétaro

De oude koloniale stad Querétaro is bijzonder vanwege het behoud van het geometrische stratenplan van de Spaanse veroveraars, samen met de kronkelige steegjes van de Indiase wijken. De Otomi, de Tarasken, de Chichimeca en de Spanjaarden leefden vreedzaam samen in de stad. Querétaro is ook opmerkelijk vanwege de vele sierlijke burgerlijke en religieuze barokke monumenten uit haar Gouden Eeuw in de 17e en 18e eeuw. De Mexicaanse onafhankelijkheid in 1810 was het begin van de economische neergang van Querétaro. In 1848 vond er nog wel een belangrijke historische gebeurtenis plaats: de afsluiting van het vredesverdrag met de Verenigde Staten.

Source: unesco.nl

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Historic town of Santiago de Queretaro, Fuente de Neptuno (Neptune’s Fountain), Province of Queretaro, Mexico, UNESCO World Heritage Site Ville Historique de Santiago de Queretaro, Fuente de Neptuno (Fontaine de Neptune), Etat de Queretaro, Mexique, Site du Patrimoine Mondial de l’UNESCO Historische Stadt Santiago de Queretaro, Fuente de Neptuno (Neptun Fontäne, Fontaene), Provinz Queretaro, Mexiko, Welterbe der UNESCO © M & G Therin-Weise
Outstanding Universal Value

Brief Synthesis

The Historic Monuments Zone of Querétaro is located in the state of Querétaro in Mexico. It is an exceptional example of a colonial town whose layout symbolizes its multi-ethnic population. It is also endowed with a wealth of outstanding buildings, notably from the 17th and 18th centuries. The property is unusual in having retained the geometric street plan of the Spanish conquerors side by side with the twisting alleys of the Indian quarters. The Otomi, the Tarasco, the Chichimeca and the Spanish lived together in the town, which is notable for the many ornate civil and religious Baroque monuments, with a skyline that has been defined since the 16th century. The urban layout of is unique for Spanish colonial towns in the Americas in that its town plan was from the start divided into two distinct sections- one rectilinear and intended for Spanish settlers and the other composed of smaller, winding streets where the indigenous population lived.

Upon construction, the city quickly assumed a double pivotal role in the structure to the south-east that had to be crossed in order to reach the capital of New Spain and at the same time it was the boundary between the southern lands, gradually settled by the Spaniards, and the northern region, which was under the control of hostile nomad peoples such as the Chichimecas.

The property covers 4 sq. kilometres with 203 blocks. There are 1400 designated monuments, of which twenty are religious and fifteen are used for public services. The many non-religious buildings in Querétaro, again mostly Baroque, are not innovative or exceptional in plan. Their special significance lies in the design and construction of a wide range of multilobate arches, to be found only in the interiors of the houses and palaces, which give the Baroque architecture of Querétaro an exceptional and original character, which is enhanced by the 'pink stone, eagerly sought and used in other parts of the region. Today, it continues to be a lively historic urban centre.

Criterion (ii): The Historic Monuments Zone of Querétaro has a unique urban character and layout that reflects the coexistence of different groups in the same urban space. It has several well preserved civil and religious buildings, which have unique constructive and decorative expressions, as the variety of poly-lobed arches and unique mixtilinear caryatids supports quad of St. Augustine.

Criterion (iv): TheHistoric Monuments Zone of Querétaro is an exceptional example of a Spanish colonial town whose layout symbolizes its multiethnic population. It is also endowed with a wealth of outstanding buildings, notably from the 17th and 18th centuries.

Integrity

The different urban elements that comprise the Historic Monuments Zone of Querétaro are present within the inscribed property. These include its design, its plazas, open spaces such as Alameda,  neighbourhoods, the aqueduct, monuments and fountains, and civil and religious construction, that form a harmonious whole, with great consistency, unity and urban integrity, despite the changes that have occurred at different times in the city.            

Authenticity

The Historic Monuments Zone of Querétaro is distinguished by its rich heritage built and perfectly preserved in its architecture, built by various civil and religious institutions. It is an historic colonial town that continues to exist largely within its original town plan of the 16th century and retains a very high proportion of old buildings, notably from the 17th and 18th centuries. As a significant group of buildings making up a living urban ensemble, its authenticity is of a high order.

Protection and management requirements

Currently these are the laws and existing legal standards applied tothe protection and conservation of the Historic Monuments Zone of Querétaro at the federal, state and municipal levels. These include the Constitution of the United Mexican States, the General Law on Human Settlements, the General Law of Ecological Equilibrium and Environmental Protection, the 1972 Federal Law on Historic, Archaeological and Artistic Monuments and Zones,  the Constitution of the Free and Sovereign State of Querétaro de Arteaga,  the Urban Code for the State of Querétaro, the Construction regulations for the City of Querétaro, the Municipal Code of Querétaro, the Regulations for the particular placement of furniture in the streets, advertisements and covers for Historic Monuments Zone of Santiago Querétaro and the Partial Plan Urban Development Area Monuments and traditional district of the city of Santiago de Querétaro.

The Management Plan and Conservation Area of Historic Monuments and Traditional Neighbourhoods City of Santiago de Querétaro is a crucial tool for the implementation of the management strategies that must be followed in the conservation of tangible and intangible cultural heritage of the property, through protection indicators, governance policies and the creation of the management unit for the historic centre. This government agency, with citizen participation, is the entity that integrates the different levels of decision making and responsibilities of authorities at the different degrees with the objective of sustaining the conservation and management of the Historic Monuments Zone of Querétaro.

Long Description

Querétaro is an exceptional example of a colonial town whose layout symbolizes its multi-ethnic population. It is also endowed with a wealth of outstanding buildings, notably from the 17th and 18th centuries.

At the time of the Spanish invasion, the lands around the abandoned site of El Pueblito or El Cerrito were the territory of Otomi people from nearer the Aztec capital, who settled on the site of the present town around 1520. The Otomi leader Kho-ni adopted the Christian faith and was granted permission in 1532 to establish an indigenous village on the site, along with the Spaniard Juan Sanchez Alanis. Spanish settlers adopted the name Queretaro ('at the ball court'), a reference to the form of the narrow valley in which the settlement was situated. From the outset the town had a unique character: the indigenous settlement of Otomis, Tarascos and Chichimecas shared the area with the Spaniards. Thanks to its favourable environmental and geographical conditions, it quickly assumed a double pivotal role in the structure to the south-east that had to be crossed in order to reach the capital of New Spain, passing through the rich lowlands of the north-west, stretching some 700 km almost to the Pacific coast. At the same time it was the boundary between the southern lands, gradually settled by the Spaniards, and the northern region, which was under the control of hostile nomad peoples such as the Chichimecas.

It was also to have an important supply function for the mining towns of Guanajuato and Zacatacas. By 1680 it had become the third city of New Spain, after Mexico and Puebla, with a population of over 30,000. The wealth of Querétaro in the mid-18th century is reflected by the important buildings that were built or reconstructed at that time, giving the town its special Baroque appearance. In the early 19th century its prosperity was based on textile manufacture and tobacco production, which provided employment for one-third of its 40,000 inhabitants. Its considerable degree of autonomy, as witnessed by the appointment of a Corregidor in 1770, encouraged exceptional commercial activity.

However, Mexican independence in 1810 spelt the beginning of Querétaro's economic decline. The region saw many military engagements, continuing to the end of the century. It was also the site of important historic events: the peace treaty with the United States was concluded there in 1848, and in 1867 Emperor Maximilian was imprisoned and later executed there after the defeat of his army nearby. With the beginning of the revolutionary movement in 1909 Querétaro once again assumed a central place in the nation, as it was here that the new National Constitution was signed on 5 February 1917 by all the revolutionary groups after two months of debate in the Teatro de la República.

In this area, defined by two lines of hills with a level area some 1,500 m wide between them through which the river runs, there are 1,400 monuments, of which 20 are religious and 15 are used for public services. The first chapel (La Cruz) was built on a small hillock art the eastern end of the valley. The Plaza de Armas, the seat of government, was arcaded on two sides and surrounded by government buildings and the residences of the leading citizens.

It was not intended that Querétaro should become an Episcopal See and so no place was allocated in the plan for a cathedral. However, all the monastic orders established themselves there. First came the Franciscans, Augustinians and Dominicans, who founded large houses, followed by the Jesuits and Filipenses, as well as female orders. All have left imposing Baroque ensembles, of which the convents of Santa Teresa, El Carmen and, in particular, the convents of Santa Clara and Santa Rosa, are outstanding.

The many non-religious buildings in Querétaro, again mostly Baroque, are not innovative or exceptional in plan. Their special significance lies in the design and construction of a wide range of multilobate arches, to be found only in the interiors of the houses and palaces, which give the Baroque architecture of Querétaro an exceptional and original character, which is enhanced by the 'pink stone of Querétaro', eagerly sought and used in other parts of the region.

Source: UNESCO/CLT/WHC
Historical Description

The extensive archaeological site known as El Pueblito or El Cerrito, which is dominated by a 30 m high pyramid, is situated 7 km from the centre of Queretaro. The limited investigations carried out there indicate that it experienced two phases of growth: AD 400-600 in the Teotihuacan period and AD 65Q-1050 in the Toltec period.

At the time of the Spanish invasion the lands around this abandoned site were the territory of the nomadic Chichimecas; they were occupied by Otomi people from nearer the Aztec capital; around 1520 they settled on the site of the present town. The Otomi leader Kho-ni, who took the name Fernando de Tapia when he adopted the Christian faith, was granted permission in 1532 by the second Royal Audience to establish an indigenous village on the site, along with the Spaniard Juan Sanchez Alanis. Two years later Spanish settlers coming up the Lerma river, accompanied by a large number of Tarasco Indians, arrived at the site, which was given the name "Ouerentaro", a Tarasco word meaning "at the ball-court"; a reference to the form of the narrow valley in which the settlement was situated.

From the outset the town had a unique character. The indigenous settlement founded in the name of the Spanish crown was based on the presence of three indigenous groups- Otomis, Tarascos, and Chichimecas; they snared the area with the Spaniards, who entrusted the laying out of the town to Sanchez Alanis. Thanks to its favourable environmental and geographical conditions it quickly assumed a double pivotal role in the structure and organization of the new lands of the colony. on the one hand it was the link between the mountains of the south-east that had to be crossed in order to reach the capital of New Spain, passing through the rich lowlands (El Bajío) of the north-west, stretching some 700 km almost to the Pacific coast. At the same time it was the boundary between the southern lands, gradually settled by the Spaniards, and the northern region, which was under the control of hostile nomad peoples such as the Chichimecas.

lt was also to nave an important supply function for the mining towns of Guanajuato and Zacatecas. By 1680 it had become the third city of New Spain, after Mexico and Puebla, with a population of over thirty thousand. The wealth of Queretaro in the mid-18th century is reflected by the important buildings that were built or reconstructed at that time, giving the town its special Baroque appearance. In the early 19th century its prosperity was based on textile manufacture and tobacco production, which provided employment for one-third of its forty thousand inhabitants. Its considerable degree of autonomy, as witnessed by the appointment of a Corregidor in 1770, encouraged exceptional commercial activity.

However, Mexican independence in 1810 spelt the beginning of aueretaro's economic decline. The region saw many military engagements, continuing to the end of the century. lt was also the site of important historic events: the peace treaty with the USA was concluded there in 1848, and in 1867 the Emperor Maximilian was imprisoned and later executed there after the defeat of his army nearby. With the beginning of the revolutionary movement in 1910 Queretaro once again assumed a central place in the nation, since it was here that the new National constitution (which is still in force today) was signed on 5 February 1917 by all the revolutionary groups after two months of debate in the Teatro de la Republica.

After remaining static at around 35,000 inhabitants between 1910 and 1940, the population began to rise rapidly. From 50,000 in 1950 it reached 130,000 in 1970, and now stands at around 450,000.

Source: Advisory Body Evaluation