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Early Christian Monuments of Ravenna

Early Christian Monuments of Ravenna

Ravenna was the seat of the Roman Empire in the 5th century and then of Byzantine Italy until the 8th century. It has a unique collection of early Christian mosaics and monuments. All eight buildings – the Mausoleum of Galla Placidia, the Neonian Baptistery, the Basilica of Sant'Apollinare Nuovo, the Arian Baptistery, the Archiepiscopal Chapel, the Mausoleum of Theodoric, the Church of San Vitale and the Basilica of Sant'Apollinare in Classe – were constructed in the 5th and 6th centuries. They show great artistic skill, including a wonderful blend of Graeco-Roman tradition, Christian iconography and oriental and Western styles.

Monuments paléochrétiens de Ravenne

Capitale de l'Empire romain au Ve siècle, puis de l'Italie byzantine jusqu'au VIIIe siècle, Ravenne possède un ensemble de mosaïques et de monuments paléochrétiens unique au monde. Ces huit bâtiments – mausolée de Galla Placidia, baptistère néonien, basilique Sant' Apollinare Nuovo, baptistère des Ariens, chapelle de l'archevêché, mausolée de Théodoric, église San Vitale, basilique Sant' Apollinare in Classe – ont été construits aux Ve et VIe siècles. Ils témoignent tous d'une grande maîtrise artistique qui associe merveilleusement la tradition gréco-romaine, l'iconographie chrétienne et des styles d'Orient et d'Occident.

نصب عائدة إلى المسيحيين الأوائل في رافينا

كانت رافينا عاصمة الامبراطورية الرومانية في القرن الخامس ثم عاصمة إيطاليا البيزنطية حتى القرن الثامن، وهي تملك مجموعة فريدة من نوعها في العالم من الفسيفساء والنصب العائدة إلى المسيحيين الأوائل. وقد بنيت هذه الأبنية الثمانية في القرنين الخامس والسادس – ضريح غالاّ بلاتشيديا ، وبيت العماد النيوني، وبازيليك سانت أبولينار نووفو ، وبيت العمال للآريين، وكابيلا الأسقفية، وضريح ثيودوريك، وكنيسة سان فيتالي وبازيليك سانت أبولينار إن كلاسي. وتشهد كلها على براعة فنية كبيرة تجمع بصورة رائعة بين التقليد الإغريقي الروماني، والإيقونوغرافيا المسيحية وأساليب الشرق والغرب.

source: UNESCO/ERI

拉文纳早期基督教名胜

5世纪时拉文纳是罗马帝国的所在地,后来一直到8世纪它又成为拜占庭意大利的所在地。城中拥有独特的早期基督教马赛克藏品以及建筑。所有的8座建筑普拉西狄亚陵墓、尼奥尼安洗礼堂、圣阿波利纳雷诺沃基督教堂、阿里亚诺洗礼堂、大主教礼拜堂、狄奥多里克陵墓、圣维塔莱教堂,克拉塞的圣阿波利纳雷基督教堂都是在5世纪到6世纪期间所建。所有的建筑都显示出了极高的艺术水准,其中包含了希腊罗马传统、基督教的插图以及东西方风格的完美交融。

source: UNESCO/ERI

Раннехристианские памятники в городе Равенна

Равенна была столицей Западной Римской империи в V в., а позже, до VIII в., – центром владений Византии в Италии. Она имеет уникальное собрание раннехристианских мозаик и памятников. Все восемь зданий – мавзолей Галлы Плацидии, баптистерии православных и ариан, базилика Сант-Аполлинаре-Нуово, архиепископская часовня, мавзолей Теодориха, церковь Сан-Витале и базилика Сант-Аполлинаре-ин-Классе – были построены в V-VI вв. Они отличаются огромным художественным мастерством исполнения, которое основано на искусном соединении греко-римских традиций, приемов христианской иконописи и восточных и западных стилей.

source: UNESCO/ERI

Monumentos paleocristianos de Rávena

Capital del imperio romano en el siglo V y de la Italia bizantina entre los siglos VI y VIII, Rávena posee una excepcional colección de mosaicos y un conjunto de ocho monumentos paleocristianos de los siglos V y VI sin parangón en el mundo. Estos monumentos –mausoleo de Gala Placidia, baptisterio neoniano, basílica de San Apolinar Nuovo, baptisterio arriano, capilla arzobispal, mausoleo de Teodorico, iglesia de San Vital y basílica de San Apolinar in Classe– muestran la gran maestría artística de sus creadores, que supieron fusionar maravillosamente la tradición arquitectónica grecorromana, la iconografía cristiana y diferentes estilos orientales y occidentales.

source: UNESCO/ERI

ラヴェンナの初期キリスト教建築物群

source: NFUAJ

Vroegchristelijke monumenten van Ravenna

Ravenna was de zetel van het Romeinse Rijk in de 5e eeuw en vervolgens van het Byzantijnse Italië tot de 8e eeuw. Het heeft een unieke verzameling van vroegchristelijke mozaïeken en monumenten. Alle acht gebouwen die bij het erfgoed behoren – het Mausoleum van Galla Placidia, de doopkapel van Neon, de Basiliek van Sant'Apollinare Nuovo, de Ariaanse doopkapel, de Aartsbisschoppelijke kapel, het Mausoleum van Theodorik, de kerk van San Vitale en de Basiliek van Sant'Apollinare in Classe – werden gebouwd in de 5e en 6e eeuw. Ze tonen grote artistieke vaardigheden, waaronder een prachtige mix van Grieks-Romeinse cultuur, christelijke iconografie en oosterse en westerse stijlen.

Source: unesco.nl

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Early Christian Monuments of Ravenna
Justification for Inscription

The Committee decided to inscribe the nominated property on the basis of cultural criteria (i), (ii), (iii) and (iv) considering that the site is of outstanding universal value being of remarkable significance by virtue of the supreme artistry of the mosaic art that the monuments contain, and also because of the crucial evidence that they provide of artistic and religious relationships and contacts at an important period of European cultural history.

Long Description

The early Christian religious monuments in Ravenna are of outstanding significance by virtue of the supreme artistry of the mosaic art that they contain, and also because of the crucial evidence that they provide of artistic and religious relationships and contacts at an important period of European cultural history.

In the reign of Augustus the port of Classis was established at Ravenna. Following the barbarian invasions of the 5th century, Honorius made it his capital. His sister, Galla Placidia, lived in Ravenna during her widowhood in the first half of the 5th century, and made it a centre of Christian art and culture. With the deposition of Romulus Augustulus in 476, Ravenna entered into a period of prosperity and influence. It was taken by Belisarius in 540 and remained the centre of Byzantine control in Italy until 752. Its subsequent history was one of decline and stagnation. After 1441 it was under Venetian and then papal rule.

The Mausoleum of Galla Placidia, built in the second quarter of the 5th century, has a plain bare exterior lightened by pilasters that meet in arches and is crowned by a brick dome concealed by a small quadrangular tower. The interior is lavishly decorated. The lower part is clad in panels of yellow marble and the remainder is entirely covered in mosaics. The building is in the western Roman architectural tradition.

The Neonian Baptistery, built by Bishop Orso in the early 5th century, was decorated with mosaics by his successor, Neone, around 450. The interior consists of four apses, articulated into two orders of arches, rising to the great cupola. The large mosaic medallion at the apex of the dome shows the Baptism of Christ by John the Baptist. This is the finest and most complete surviving example of the early Christian baptistry.

The Basilica of Sant'Apollinare Nuovo was built in the early years of the 6th century. Inside the interior is divided by 24 marble columns into a nave and two aisles, with a rounded apse. At the present time mosaics cover the two side walls at the foot of the nave, from the ceiling to the tops of the supporting arches, in three decorated fascias. Those in the upper two fascias are in traditional Roman style whereas those in the third show strong Byzantine influence.

The Arian Baptistery, built by Theodoric next to his cathedral, was reconsecrated with the overthrow of the Arian heresy in 561 and became an oratory dedicated to the Virgin Mary. It is a small brick building, octagonal in plan with four flat sides and four with protruding apses. Only the dome retains its mosaic decoration. The iconography of the mosaics is of importance in that it illustrates the Trinity, a somewhat unexpected element in the art of an Arian building as the Trinity was not accepted in this doctrine.

The Archiepiscopal Chapel, the private oratory of the orthodox bishops, was built around 500. The chapel is in the shape of a Greek cross with an apse on the eastern arm; it is covered by a cross-vault and preceded by a rectangular vestibule. The Iower part of the walls is covered with marble, with mosaics above.

The Mausoleum of Theodoric wasbuilt by Theodoric shortly before his death in 526. It is in two storeys, the lower 10-sided with a niche and a small window in each side. The significance of the mausoleum lies in its style and decoration, which owe nothing to Roman or Byzantine art, although it makes use of the Roman stone-construction technique of opus quadratum , which had been abandoned four centuries before. It is the unique surviving example of a tomb of a barbarian king of this period.

The Church of San Vitale was completed around 547. It was fronted by a large quadroportico, converted into a cloister when the church became part of a Benedictine monastery. There are two storeys, the upper one encircling the dome. The apse, which is semi-circular on the interior and polygonal on the outside, is flanked by two small rectangular rooms terminating in niches and two semi-circular sacristies.

The Basilica of Sant'Apollinare in Classe was built in the first half of the 6th century, commissioned by Bishop Ursicinus. The narthex is incorporated in the central body of the facade, framed by two pilasters.

Source: UNESCO/CLT/WHC
Historical Description
[in French only]

Sous le règne d'Auguste, le port de Classis fut établi à Ravenne qui devint base impériale pour le nord de 1'Adriatique. Après les invasions barbares du Sème siècle, Honorius en fit sa capitale, après le sac de Rome par Alaric le Goth en l'an 410. Sa sœur, Galla Placidia, qui fut mariée au fils d'Attila Ataulf, vécut à Ravenne durant son veuvage dans la première moitié du Sème siècle et en fit un centre d'art et de culture chrétiens.

Avec la déposition de Romulus Augustule, dernier empereur d'Occident, par les Huns en 476, et la défaite de ces derniers par Théodoric l'Ostrogoth, Ravenne entra dans une période de prospérité et de puissance. Elle fut prise par Bélisaire en 540 et demeura le centre de l'autorité byzantine en Italie jusqu'en 752.

Son histoire se résume ensuite au déclin et à la stagnation. Des modifications du cours du Pô touchèrent gravement son commerce. De 1441 à 1S09, Ravenne passa sous la domination de Venise puis sous celle du pape. Elle resta pendant des siècles en retrait de tout développement si bien qu'elle subit très peu de reconstructions et conserva les témoignages de sa gloire passée à un degré remarquable.

Source: Advisory Body Evaluation