The Semmering Railway, built over 41 km of high mountains between 1848 and 1854, is one of the greatest feats of civil engineering from this pioneering phase of railway building. The high standard of the tunnels, viaducts and other works has ensured the continuous use of the line up to the present day. It runs through a spectacular mountain landscape and there are many fine buildings designed for leisure activities along the way, built when the area was opened up due to the advent of the railway.
Ligne de chemin de fer de Semmering
La ligne de chemin de fer de Semmering, construite entre 1848 et 1854 pour permettre de traverser 41 km de hautes montagnes, compte parmi les grandes prouesses de génie civil dans les premiers temps de la construction ferroviaire. Du fait de la qualité de ses tunnels, viaducs et autres ouvrages, la ligne est demeurée en service de manière ininterrompue jusqu’à nos jours. Elle traverse un paysage montagneux spectaculaire, où de nombreux édifices de qualité destinés aux loisirs ont pu être construits grâce à l’ouverture de la région avec l’arrivée du chemin de fer.
خط سكة الحديد في سيمرينغ
تُعتبر سكة الحديد في سيمرنغ، التي شيّدت بين 1848 و 1854 لتسمح بعبور 41 كيلومتراً من الجبال العالية، من أهم الإنجازات في الهندسة الحضرية في أوائل أيام سكك الحديد. وبفضل جودة أنفاقها وممراتها والأعمال الأخرى، بقي الخط شغالاً بلا انقطاع حتى الآن. وتعبر سكة الحديد هذه المناطق الجبلية البديعة حيث ترتفع مبانٍ عديدة عالية النوعية مخصصة للترفيه وقد تمّ بناؤها بفضل انفتاح المنطقة الناتج عن وصول سكة الحديد اليها.
Железная дорога Земмеринг
Железная дорога Земмеринг, протяженностью более 41 км, построенная в высокогорной местности в 1848-1854 гг., является одним из выдающихся достижений гражданской инженерии начальной стадии железнодорожного строительства в мире. Высокое качество туннелей, виадуков и других сооружений обеспечило длительное использование линии вплоть до настоящего времени. Железная дорога проходит через живописный горный район, что обусловило развитие вдоль дороги инфраструктуры для отдыха.
Línea de ferrocarril de Semmering
Construida entre 1848 y 1854 a lo largo de 41 kilómetros de terreno montañoso, la línea ferroviaria de Semmering representa una de las mayores proezas de la ingeniería civil en los primeros tiempos de la construcción de vías férreas. Debido a la solidez de sus túneles, viaductos y otras obras de ingeniería, la línea se ha seguido utilizando sin interrupción hasta nuestros días. El ferrocarril atraviesa un espectacular paisaje montañoso, donde se han podido construir numerosos edificios de gran calidad arquitectónica destinados a actividades recreativas, desde que la región quedó comunicada gracias a este medio de transporte.
De Semmering-spoorlijn werd tussen 1848 en 1854 gebouwd en loopt over 41 km van hoge bergen. De spoorweg is een van de grootste prestaties op het gebied van civiele techniek uit de pioniersfase van de spoorwegbouw. De hoge standaard waaraan de tunnels, viaducten en andere werken moesten voldoen, heeft ervoor gezorgd dat de spoorweg continue in gebruik is geweest en nog steeds is. De Semmering-spoorlijn gaat door een spectaculair berglandschap. Door de spoorweg werden de prachtige natuurgebieden gemakkelijk toegankelijk en konden woon- en recreatiegebieden worden ontwikkeld. Met het ontstaan van het spoor ontstond dus een nieuwe vorm van cultureel landschap.
Outstanding Universal Value
The Semmering Railway, constructed between 1848 and 1854 over 41 km of high mountains, is one of the greatest feats of civil engineering during the pioneering phase of railway building. Set against a spectacular mountain landscape, the railway line remains in use today thanks to the quality of its tunnels, viaducts, and other works, and has led to the construction of many recreational buildings along its tracks.
The property Semmering Railway begins at Gloggnitz station, at an altitude of 436 m, reaches its highest point after 29 km over the pass at 895 m above sea level, and ends 12 km further away at the Mürzzuschlag station, 677 m above sea level.
The line can be divided into four sections. The first runs from Gloggnitz to Payerbach stations, following the left-hand slopes of the Schwarza valley; the next section crosses the valley by taking the Schwarza viaduct to reach Eichberg Station, and the third section enters the Auerbach valley to continue through dense forest to Klamm-Schottwien station. After passing through the Klamm Tunnel, it reaches the Adlitzgraben and the Alpine terrain itself. After a series of tunnels and viaducts, the trains pass through the Weinzettelwand, the Krauselklause, and the Polleroswand, taking several tunnel sections. In the last and most dramatic section of the whole route, the two-storey curving viaduct goes over the Kalte Rinne, and after passing through the Wolfsberg and the Kartnerkogels, the train passes through the 1,431 m Semmering Tunnel before reaching Semmering station. It then descends gradually along the right-hand slope of the Roschnitz valley, through Stienhaus and Spital am Semmering, before arriving at Mürzzuschlag.
In total, the fourteen tunnels are 1,477 m long, nearly one-tenth of the entire line; coincidentally, the sixteen major viaducts also total 1,477 m in length. There are 118 smaller arched stone bridges and 11 iron bridges. Most of the portals of the tunnels are simple but monumental in design, and feature various kinds of ornamentations. Support structures are largely in stone, but brick was used for the arches of the viaducts and tunnel facings. The 57 two-storey attendants' houses, located at approximately 700 m intervals, are a very characteristic feature of the Semmering line and were built from coursed rubble masonry with brick trimmings. Little remains of the original stations, which were planned as no more than relay stations and watering points, but later became converted into more impressive structures as tourist traffic increased.
The appearance of the whole line changed significantly between 1957 and 1959, when electrical poles were erected to carry the contact wires required by electrical locomotives. The Semmering pass itself is well known for the 'summer architecture' of the villas and hotels, as it became one of the first purpose-built Alpine resorts in the decades following the opening of the railway line.
Criterion (ii): The Semmering Railway represents an outstanding technological solution to a major physical problem in the construction of early railways.
Criterion (iv): With the construction of the Semmering Railway, areas of great natural beauty became more easily accessible and as a result these were developed for residential as well recreational use, creating a new form of landscape.
The inscribed property covers an area of 156 ha, with a buffer zone of 8,581 ha, and includes all attributes necessary to convey its Outstanding Universal Value. The railway line itself and the civil engineering works have been continuously in function since 1854, and the property’s functional integrity has therefore been maintained. The continued operation of the line is a sound testimony to the engineering genius of Carl von Ghega, the project engineer. The property also derives its appearance from the villas and hotels constructed in its immediate vicinity in the late 19th and early 20th centuries, showing the impact of the railway line on the surrounding landscape. The turn-of-the-century architecture, harmoniously inserted into a rugged Alpine landscape, has also retained its integrity.
The authenticity of the route itself and of the remarkable civil engineering works that made this project possible is unquestionable. Although the appearance of the line has changed, especially since its electrification in the 1950s, the overall impact of the line on the landscape remains authentic. Given that the railway line has been in use continuously since its opening in 1854, specific items have worn out and been replaced, and methods for organising and operating railway lines have adapted to changing circumstances. However, since railways are by nature evolving socio-technical systems, continuity through change is an essential part of their identity, and these principles have been applied to preserve the property’s authenticity.
Protection and management requirements
Management takes place at national, regional and local levels, and the property has revised and approved a detailed zoning plan that includes its buffer zone. It is protected at the Federal level since 1923 (Austrian Monument Protection Act, Federal Law Gazette No. 533/1923 and subsequent amendments). The property is also regulated by the “Convention Concerning the Protection of the World Cultural and Natural Heritage including the Austrian Declaration” (Federal Law Gazette No. 60/1993). The surrounding landscape is protected at provincial level and forms part of the Biosphere Reserve designation. A number of other specific laws regarding specific matters (such as water management and forest protection) also are in force. In addition, the property itself is managed by the Austrian Federal Railway Company, advised by an expert on railway preservation. Supervision and advice are provided by experts of the Federal Office for Protection of Historical Monuments. Funds are available from the Federal State of Austria as well as from the Provinces of Lower Austria and Styria.
A management plan has been in place since 2008. It has advisory status and plays a strategic role in guiding the decision-making processes, and it must be seen as a work in progress which requires systematic evaluation and review. Control and monitoring functions are also exerted through democratic participation of the public.
The Semmering Railway represents an outstanding technological solution to a major physical problem in the construction of early railways. The railway, built over 41 km of high mountains between 1848 and 1854, is one of the greatest feats of civil engineering from this pioneering phase of railway building. The high standard of the tunnels, viaducts and other works has ensured the continuous use of the line to the present day. Furthermore, with its construction, areas of great natural beauty became more easily accessible and as a result these were developed for residential and recreational use, creating a new form of cultural landscape.
The transport route from the valley of the Mürz to the Vienna Depression has been used since prehistoric times. In the Middle Ages it was considered to be one of the few secure Alpine crossings. Transport was possible using pack animals and wagons drawn by oxen, and it had become one of the most important international land routes from Venice by the 12th century. However, the Semmering had lost much of its trade by the 15th century owing to the opening up of the Brenner and Radstatter Trauem routes further south. In 1728 the Emperor Karl Vl ordered it to be improved as both a commercial and a military road, joining Austria with Trieste rather than Venice (hence its name, the Trieste Route).
The first railway line (horse-drawn) of any significance on the European continent was opened in 1824-32 between Linz and Budweis (České Budejovice), and 1837 saw the installation of the locomotive-hauled line between Florisdorf and Deutsche Wagram. The southbound Vienna-Gloggnitz line opened in 1841 and the section from Mürzzuschlag to Graz was added in 1844, leaving a gap over the difficult Semmering stretch. The line was later extended southwards to Cilli in 1846, Laibach (Ljubljana) in 1849, and finally, over difficult karst terrain, to Trieste in 1857.
Most of the portals of the tunnels are simple but monumental in design, and are variously ornamented. Support structures are largely in stone, but brick was used for the arches of the viaducts and tunnel facings. The 57 two-storey attendants' houses, sited at approximately 700 m intervals, that are a very characteristic feature of the Semmering line, were built from coursed rubble masonry with brick trimmings. Little remains of the original stations, which were planned originally as no more than relay stations and watering points, but later became converted into more impressive structures as tourist traffic increased.
The appearance of the whole line was significantly changed between 1957 and 1959, when masts were erected to carry the contact wires needed by the conversion to electrical locomotives. The Semmering pass itself is well known for the 'summer architecture' of the villas and hotels that were built for Viennese society between Gloggnitz and the small market town of Schottwien in picturesque locations. It became one of the first artificially laid out Alpine resorts in the decades following the opening of the railway line. This process had begun even before that project began, with the development of Reichenau an der Rax and Payerbach, to the north-west of Gloggnitz, as tourist areas in the early decades of the 19th century.
Romantic historicism influenced the appearance of the villas and hotels built in this area, a number of which have Gothic or Renaissance antecedents. The steep-gabled and fantastically ornate 'Swiss chalet' also found favour with many builders. The Semmering pass itself was not affected by tourist development for some time after the line opened in 1854. The Southern Railway Company, operators of the line at that time, began development in 1880, at the urging of the court sculptor, Franz Schönthaler, with the construction of the Semmering Hotel. It was, however, Schönthaler's own villa south of the hotel that had the strongest influence on architectural design along the Semmering line. The use of traditional Alpine wooden-frame construction by his architect, Franz von Neumann, was eagerly seized upon by other patrons, and the 'Semmering style' predominated in the buildings erected in the latter part of the 19th century.Source: UNESCO/CLT/WHC
The transport route from the valley of the Miirz to the Vienna Depression has been used since prehistoric times. In the Middle Ages it was considered to be one of the few secure Alpine crossings. Transport was possible using pack animals and wagons drawn by oxen. It had become one of the most important international land routes from Venice by the 12th century. However, the Semmering had lost much of its trade by the 15th century owing to the opening up of the Brenner and Radstatter Trauem routes further south. In 1728 the Emperor Karl VI ordered it to be improved as both a commercial and a military road, joining Austria with Trieste rather than Venice, hence its name, the "Trieste Route." In 1841 the steep northern approach was relaid, reducing the gradient by some 5%. The new accessibility of the region brought artists and poets there, to admire the wild scenery, as well as attracting considerable commercial traffic, as the Industrial Revolution developed in the region.
The first railway line (horse-drawn) of any significance on the European continent was opened in 1824-32 between Linz and Budweis (Cesk6 Budejovice) and 1837 saw the installation of the locomotive-hauled line between Florisdorf and Deutsche Wagram. The southbound Vienna-Gloggnitz line opened in 1841 and the section from Miirzzuschlag to Graz was added in 1844, leaving a gap over the difficult Semmering stretch. The line was later extended southwards to Cilli in 1846, Laibach (Ljubljana) in 1849, and finally, over difficult karst terrain, to Trieste in 1857.
The first plan for crossing the Sernmering, involving a 1 :30 gradient, was drawn up in 1841 but not followed up for technical reasons. The project was taken up again in 1842, when Carlo Ghega was appointed Chief Inspector for the southern line, linking Vienna and Trieste. He began by visiting the USA, where he studied 39 railway lines covering 2413km. This showed him that the technical difficulties seen in the first plan were not insuperable, and he began to survey possible routes over the Semmering. Since no reliable maps were available, he had to carry out a complete survey of the area; the difficult terrain led him to develop new surveying instruments, notably the Stampfer'sche Nivellier-Hohen- und Liingenmessinstrument, used to measure height and distance, which was to become an important tool in geodetics.
He worked out several routes before settling on one in 1846. It was 42km long, with 22 major bridges and viaducts and a tunnel 1200m long, situated just below the pass; although not the simplest route, it was the most feasible in the light of the technological limitations of the day, notably the lack of powerful explosives for tunnelling. His project plan was completed in 1847, but work did not start immediately, because Ghega was engaged in the construction of the line between Cilli and Laibach.
His project met with considerable opposition , but it was accepted in June 1848 by the new Minister for Public Works, Andreas Baumgartner, who wanted projects offering substantial long-term employment prospects. Despite a storm of protest, from both specialists and the press, work began in August 1848. The entire stretch of line was divided into fourteen sections, each of which was entrusted to a separate firm. At the start 1007 men and 414 women were employed, to increase to over 20,000 as the work progressed.
The maximum gradient of 1 :25 and the exceptionally small radius curves called for a new type of locomotive, and four firms entered a public competition in 1850. None of the entries was considered to be suitable for production in series, although they met the technical requirements, and so Wilhelm von Eggerth was commissioned to combine the best features of all of them in a new design. The result was triumphantly successful and• 26 engines were immediately commissioned.
Source: Advisory Body Evaluation
Construction work on the line and the manufacture of locomotives and rolling stock progressed well, with the result that the transport of passengers and goods over the line was able to start, on schedule, on 17 July 1854.