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Pyrénées - Mont Perdu

Pyrénées - Mont Perdu

This outstanding mountain landscape, which spans the contemporary national borders of France and Spain, is centred around the peak of Mount Perdu, a calcareous massif that rises to 3,352 m. The site, with a total area of 30,639 ha, includes two of Europe's largest and deepest canyons on the Spanish side and three major cirque walls on the more abrupt northern slopes with France, classic presentations of these geological landforms. The site is also a pastoral landscape reflecting an agricultural way of life that was once widespread in the upland regions of Europe but now survives only in this part of the Pyrénées. Thus it provides exceptional insights into past European society through its landscape of villages, farms, fields, upland pastures and mountain roads.

Pyrénées - Mont Perdu

Ce paysage de montagne exceptionnel, qui rayonne des deux côtés des frontières nationales actuelles de France et d'Espagne, est centré sur le pic du Mont-Perdu, massif calcaire qui culmine à 3 352 m. Le site, d'une superficie totale de 30 639 ha, comprend deux des canyons les plus grands et les plus profonds d'Europe sur le versant sud, du côté espagnol, et trois cirques importants sur le versant nord, plus abrupt, du côté français – formes géologiques terrestres classiques. Ce site est également un paysage pastoral qui reflète un mode de vie agricole autrefois répandu dans les régions montagneuses d'Europe. Il est resté inchangé au XXe siècle en ce seul endroit des Pyrénées, et présente des témoignages inestimables sur la société européenne d'autrefois à travers son paysage de villages, de fermes, de champs, de hauts pâturages et de routes de montagne.

البيرينيه – الجبل الضائع

هذا المنظر الجبلي فريد من نوعه ويمتد على طول الحدود الوطنيّة الحاليّة لفرنسا واسبانيا ويقع على قمّة جبل القديس ميشيل وهو كتلة كلسيّة تبلغ أعلى قممها 3352 متراً. ويضمّ الموقع الممتد على مساحةٍ إجماليّة قدرها 30.639 هكتاراً اثنين من أكبر جبال أوروبا وأسحقها عند السفح الجنوبي من الناحية الإسبانيّة وثلاثة محاور مهمّة عند السفح الشمالي الأكثر شموخاً من الناحية الفرنسيّة ناهيك عن أشكال جيولوجيّة أرضيّة كلاسيكيّة. كما يُشكّل هذا الموقع موقع رعاية يعكس نمط حياة زراعية كان سائداً في ما مضى في مناطق أوروبا الجبليّة. وظلّ هذا الموقع أبيّاً على التغيير في القرن العشرين وهو يجسّد بقراه ومزارعه وسهوله ومراعيه وطرقه الجبليّة شهادةً نفيسةً على الحياة الأوروبيّة السالفة.

source: UNESCO/ERI

比利牛斯——珀杜山

这处雄伟壮观的高山景观,横跨法国与西班牙当前的国界,以海拔3 352米的石灰质山——珀杜山顶峰为中心,方圆30 639公顷。在西班牙境内的是欧洲两个最大最深的峡谷,而在法国境内更加陡峭的北坡上则是三个大片环形屏障,充分代表了这里的地质地貌。除了雄伟的山脉,这个地区还有着恬静的田园风光,反映了农业生活方式,这种生活方式曾在欧洲高地非常普遍,而今却仅存于比利牛斯地区。在这里,可以通过村庄、农场、原野、高地牧场和崎岖的山路这些独特的景观,去回顾久远的欧洲社会。

source: UNESCO/ERI

Район горы Мон-Пердю в Пиренеях

В центре этого замечательного высокогорного массива, охватывающего пограничный – между Францией и Испанией – район в Пиренеях, возвышается известняковая гора Мон-Пердю, достигающая 3352 м. В состав объекта наследия площадью 30,6 тыс. га входят два глубочайших в Европе каньона (на испанской стороне) и три крупных ледниковых цирка (во Франции). Здешние пасторальные ландшафты иллюстрируют сельскохозяйственный уклад, ранее весьма типичный для горных районов Европы, однако к настоящему времени сохранившийся лишь в этой части Пиренейских гор. О прошлых временах напоминают селения, поля и фермы, горные пастбища и дороги.

source: UNESCO/ERI

Pirineos - Monte Perdido

Situado a ambos lados de la frontera entre Francia y España, este extraordinario paisaje montañoso tiene por centro el macizo calcáreo del Monte Perdido, que culmina a 3.352 metros de altura. El sitio, que se extiende por una superficie de 30.639 hectáreas, cuenta con formaciones geológicas clásicas: dos cañones, los más grandes y profundos de Europa, situados en la vertiente meridional española; y tres grandes circos glaciares en la vertiente septentrional francesa, que es más abrupta. Además, el Monte Perdido es una zona de pastoreo donde se puede observar un modo de vida rural muy extendido antaño por las regiones montañosas de Europa, que sólo se ha conservado intacto en este lugar de los Pirineos a lo largo de todo el siglo XX. Su paisaje formado por aldeas, granjas, campos, pastizales de altura y carreteras de montaña constituye un testimonio inestimable del pasado de la sociedad europea.

source: UNESCO/ERI

ピレネー山脈-ペルデュ山

source: NFUAJ

Pyreneeën - Mont Perdu

De Pyreneeën liggen op de grens van Frankrijk en Spanje, gecentreerd rondom de top van de Mont Perdu, een kalkhoudend bergmassief van 3.352 meter hoogte. Het berglandschap beslaat 30.639 hectare. Aan de Spaanse kant bevinden zich twee van de grootste en diepste ravijnen van Europa. Op de meer bruuske hellingen van Frankrijk zijn drie grote cirque muren (bergen met een arena-achtig midden) te vinden. Het landschap weerspiegelt een agrarische manier van leven die voorheen wijdverspreid was in de berggebieden van Europa, maar nu alleen nog voorkomt in de Pyreneeën. De dorpen, boerderijen, velden, weiden en bergwegen geven inzicht in de vroegere Europese samenleving.

Source: unesco.nl

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Gavarnie Cirque © UNESCO / J. Sorosh-Wali
Justification for Inscription

The Committee inscribed the site under natural criteria (vii) and (viii). The calcareous massif of the Mount Perdu displays classic geological land forms, including deep canyons and spectacular cirque walls. It is also an outstanding scenic landscape with meadows, lakes, caves and forests on mountain slopes. In addition, the area is of high interest to science and conservation. Concerning cultural values, the Committee inscribed the property on the basis of criteria (iii), (iv) and (v): The Pyrénées-Mont Perdu area between France and Spain is an outstanding cultural landscape which combines scenic beauty with a socio-economic structure that has its roots in the past and illustrates a mountain way of life that has become rare in Europe.

Long Description

The transboundary site is centred on the peak of Mont Perdu that rises to 3,352 m in the Pyrenees mountains. The Pyrenees represent the tectonic collision point of the lberian and West European plates.

The most geologically outstanding portion of the Pyrenees is the calcareous massif centred on Mont Perdu. On the north (France) side the landscape is much more abrupt with three major cirques, while on the southern slopes (Spain) Mont Perdu (or Peridido) has three radiating spurs with deep canyons that gradually slope to the lberian Piedmont.

There are also climatic differences between the northern and southern slopes. The French side is humid whereas the Spanish slopes are dryer. Climate also varies also from the west (maritime influence) to the east (coastal Mediterranean climate).

The location of the Pyrenees between two seas, their geological structure and the climatic asymmetries result in a rich mosaic of vegetation types. Five vegetation types have been described: sub-Mediterranean, collinean, montane, subalpine and alpine.

There is a rich plant diversity (3,500 species and subspecies) and endemism (5%). The site supports many wildlife species typical of the Pyrenees. Mammals include the marmot and ungulates such as the Spanish ibex, of which there are only three female individuals. The insectivorous Pyrenean desman occurs in lowland elevation. The avifauna, reptiles, amphibious species and coleoptera are very rich.

There are human settlements in the area since the Palaeolithic (40,000-10,000 BC), as shown by sites such as the Anisclo and Escuain caves, the Gavarnie stone circles and the Tella dolmen. The permanent settlements entered history in documents of the Middle Ages. The massif has played a major role in the communication between Spanish and French communities bordering the site.

Several thousand years of human settlement has caused many changes to the natural environment of the site. Many large predators and carnivore species have been extirpated or severely reduced in number. In recent time some species have been reintroduced such as the marmot. The original forest has been removed by cutting or burning although it is now recovering. There has been extensive livestock grazing over much of the area although this is no longer permitted in the Ordessa National Park. The centuries-old transhumant system of grazing continues within the area, with frequent movement of herds across the French-Spanish border. One historic route accessible on foot connects the two sides and was a branch of the original route of Santiago de Compostela.

Source: UNESCO/CLT/WHC
Historical Description

Humankind has contributed to the moulding of these landscapes and its traces are to be seen everywhere, thanks both to the material remains and to memory. Despite the difficult living conditions imposed by altitude, human beings are established here and provide what is above all a natural property with a meaning.

The Mont-Perdu forms the pivot of a geographical space crowned by the Tres Serols, which is the centre of the world that unifies, according to traditional mythologies, the Heavens and the Earth. It results from the coming together of two ancient comments and continues to serve as a frontier which acts both to define and to link all together in a symbolical sense that is in itself impressive It is, moreover, clearly defined in physical terms, providing its soils with specific characteristics in terms of geology, relief. hydrology, and climate which have had direct effects on the relationship of humankind with this environment.

Nature favoured the early appearance of humans in these regions, first as nomads and then as permanent settlers. Their settlements were organized so as to be able to make use of the resources of not only the valleys and their slopes but also of the high pastures, the woodland, the rock walls, the passes, the waters, and the mineral resources. There has been human settlement here since the Upper Palaeolithic period (40.000-10.000 BC), as shown by sites such as the Añiscio and Escuain caves, the Gavamie stone circles; and the Tella dolmen. The permanent settlements entered history in documents of the Middle Ages; they were situated on the slopes of the mad and in the valleys around it, formed by the hydrographic network of the rivers Ara, Yesa, Aso and Vellos, Yaga, Barrosa and Cinca, Neste d'Aure, Gaves de Gavamie, and Héas.

Here are to be seen tracks and roads, bridges, houses, and hospices (such as the espitau/hospitales of Gavamie, Bujarelo, Aragnouet, Parzan, Héas, and Pineta Humans and their flocks influenced the flora of pastures and woodland in many ways. The use of high pastures such as those of Gaulis or Ossoue is remarkable testimony to this system of transhumance

The valleys of Mont Perdu and their passes have saved as the means of contact between communities on either side, who have more in common with one another than with the communities on the plains below them. As a result there is a long-established juridical and political system to regulate them that has long been independent of central governments.

Source: Advisory Body Evaluation
Activities (1)