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Tikal National Park

Tikal National Park

In the heart of the jungle, surrounded by lush vegetation, lies one of the major sites of Mayan civilization, inhabited from the 6th century B.C. to the 10th century A.D. The ceremonial centre contains superb temples and palaces, and public squares accessed by means of ramps. Remains of dwellings are scattered throughout the surrounding countryside.

Parc national de Tikal

Au cœur de la jungle, dans une végétation luxuriante, Tikal est l'un des sites majeurs de la civilisation maya qui fut habité du VIe siècle av. J.-C. au Xe siècle de l'ère chrétienne. Son centre cérémoniel comporte de superbes temples et palais et des places publiques auxquelles on accède par des rampes. Des vestiges d'habitations sont disséminés dans la campagne avoisinante.

منتزه تكال الوطني

يُعتبر منتزه تكال الذي يقع في قلب الغابة والمُحاط بالنباتات المعشبة أحد أهم مواقع حضارة المايا المأهولة من القرن السادس قبل الميلاد حتى القرن العاشر من الحقبة المسيحية. ويشمل مركزه الاحتفالي معابد خلابة وقصوراً وأماكن عامة يمكن بلوغها عبر قناطر مشاة. وفي الريف المجاور آثار لمساكن بشرية قديمة.

source: UNESCO/ERI



source: UNESCO/ERI

Национальный парк Тикаль

В самом сердце джунглей в окружении пышной растительности находится один из главных центров цивилизации майя, который был обитаем в период VI в. до н.э. – X в. н.э. Ритуальный центр этого города составляют внушительные храмы и дворцы, большие площади, для доступа на которые были сооружены специальные пандусы. На окружающей их территории сохранились остатки жилых построек.

source: UNESCO/ERI

Parque Nacional de Tikal

Situado en el corazón de una selva de vegetación lujuriante, Tikal es uno de los sitios más importantes de la civilización maya. Fue habitado desde el siglo VI a.C. hasta el siglo X d.C. Su centro ceremonial comprende templos y palacios soberbios, así como plazas públicas a las que se accedía por rampas. En sus alrededores hay vestigios diseminados de viviendas.

source: UNESCO/ERI


source: NFUAJ

Nationaal park Tikal

Het Nationaal park Tikal omvat 57,600 hectare. In het hart hiervan, omgeven door weelderige vegetatie, ligt een van de belangrijkste gebieden van de Maya beschaving: Tikal. De oude Maya stad werd bewoond van de 6e eeuw voor tot de 10e eeuw na Christus. In het ceremoniële centrum vindt men prachtige tempels, paleizen en openbare pleinen, die bereikbaar zijn door middel van hellingen. Overblijfselen van woningen zijn verspreid over het omliggende platteland. Het park kent een rijke vegetatie, er zijn meer dan 2.000 plantensoorten geïdentificeerd. Daarnaast komen er 54 soorten zoogdieren voor.

Source: unesco.nl

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Tikal © B. Doucin/L.Lalait
Long Description

Together with Sierra de las Minas Biosphere Reserve, Maya is the most important reserve in the country, because of its archaeological and bio/ecological interest. Rivers, lakes, swamps and flooding savannas are important for biodiversity and for migratory birds. The reserve contains the largest area of tropical rainforest in Guatemala and Central America, with a wide range of unspoilt natural habitats. A large area of the reserve still comprises dense broadleaved forests with more than 300 species of commercially useful trees, such as cedar, mahogany, ramon (bread-nut tree), Araceae

(osier for furniture), chicle, pepper and others.

The soils of El Petén-Caribbean form a sedimentary basin with deposits from the Mesozoic and the Tertiary periods. They contain limestone and dolomites showing Cretaceous characteristics of karst formations with a broken relief. Soils are clayey and slightly permeable, with internal drainage, and easily compactable. Two types are found in the reserve: the Yucatan shelf to the north, formed by small hills, and the Lacandon mountain chain in the centre, consisting of rounded hills of calcareous origin, mountain chains, lagoons and alluvial plains. In the Lacandon area, soils are poor and there are abrupt cliffs. In the Tikal, Uaxactun and Dos Lagunas areas, the topography is undulating and soils are well drained. Laguna del Tigre and Laguna de Yaxha are the main lagoons found in the wetland area, where there are a large number of 'aguadas' or superficial swamps. The rivers in the reserve are part of the drainage basin of the Usumacinta River in the Gulf of Mexico. This is one of the most extensive wetland systems in Central America.

Tikal protects some 22,100 ha of rainforest. The rich vegetation includes; species of savannah such as nance; high altitude forest with chicle, ramon , West Indian mahogany, cedar, palma de botan (palm) and palma de escobo , 'tinto' lowland forest. Other common tree species include cedar and the palm. Over 2,000 plant species were identified in the park area. Local people use forest species such as chicle, pepper, cedar, mahogany and ramon and the use of leaves and flowers from Chamaedorea and Araceae spp. are used for ornamental purposes.

Fifty-four species of mammal occur, including mantled howler monkey, spider monkey, giant anteater, lesser anteater, dwarf anteater, three-toed sloth, nine-banded armadillo, squirrel, pocket gopher, raccoon, brown coati, kinkajou, tayra, paca, long-tailed weasel, hooded skunk, otter, puma, margay, ocelot, jaguarundi, jaguar, Baird's tapir which is limited by water availability, collared and white-lipped peccaries, white-tailed deer and red brocket deer. The avifauna comprises 333 species, representing 63 of the 74 families in Guatemala, and includes ocellated turkey, red macaw, jaribu stork and many others, including crested eagle.

Reptiles and amphibians include Morelet's crocodile, the Central American river turtle, nine families of amphibian and six genera of turtles, as well as 38 species of non-poisonous and poisonous snakes including coral snake, four species of Bothrops and two subspecies of rattlesnake Crotalus. A rich invertebrate fauna, especially arthropods, also occurs.

In the heart of this jungle, surrounded by lush vegetation, lies one of the major sites of the Mayan civilization. The ceremonial centre contains superb temples and palaces, and public squares accessed by means of ramps. Remains of dwellings are scattered throughout the surrounding countryside. The ruined city reflects the cultural evolution of Mayan society from hunter- gathering to farming, with an elaborate religious, artistic and scientific culture which finally collapsed in the late 9th century. At its height, AD 700-800, the city supported a population of 90,000 Mayan Indians. There are over 3,000 separate buildings dating from 600 BC to AD 900, including temples, residences, religious monuments decorated with hieroglyphic inscriptions and tombs. Excavations have yielded remains of cotton, tobacco, beans, pumpkins, peppers and many fruits of pre-Columbian origin. Large areas are still to be excavated.

Historical Description

Declared a national park on 26 May 1955, having originally been established as a national monument in 1931. Tikal National Park (accepted as a World Heritage site in 1979) and Laguna del Tigre (a Ramsar site) are located within the biosphere reserve. Declared a biosphere reserve on 30 January 1990 by congressional Decree No. 5-90, based on Article 12 of Congressional Decree No. 4-89 of the Protected Areas Law (Lehnhoff Temme, 1990).

Source: Advisory Body Evaluation