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Cultural and Historic Ensemble of the Solovetsky Islands

Cultural and Historic Ensemble of the Solovetsky Islands

The Solovetsky archipelago comprises six islands in the western part of the White Sea, covering 300 km2 . They have been inhabited since the 5th century B.C. and important traces of a human presence from as far back as the 5th millennium B.C. can be found there. The archipelago has been the site of fervent monastic activity since the 15th century, and there are several churches dating from the 16th to the 19th century.

Ensemble historique, culturel et naturel des îles Solovetsky

D'une superficie totale de 300 km2 , les six îles de l'archipel Solovetsky se trouvent dans la partie occidentale de la mer Blanche. Elles furent peuplées dès le Ve millénaire av. J.-C. et conservent d'importants vestiges d'une occupation humaine remontant au IIIe millénaire. À partir du XVe siècle, l'archipel a connu une activité monastique intense et il conserve plusieurs églises construites entre le XVIe et le XIXe siècle.

المجموعة التاريخيّة والثقافيّة والطبيعيّة لجزر سولوفيتسكي

تمتد جزر أرخبيل سولوفيتسكي الستّة على مساحة إجماليّة قدرها 300 كم مربع وهي تقع في الجزء الغربي للبحر الأبيض. بدأ السكن فيها حوالى الألفيّة الخامسة ق.م وهي تأوي آثاراً مهمّة تعكس الوجود البشري وترقى إلى الألفيّة الثالثة. بدءاً من القرن الخامس عشر، عرف الأرخبيل نشاطاً رهبانياً كثيفاً وهو يُحافظ على العديد من الكنائس المشيّدة بين القرنين السادس والتاسع عشر.

source: UNESCO/ERI

索洛维茨基群岛的历史建筑群

索洛维茨基群岛是由位于白海西部的6个岛屿组成,占地300平方公里。在这里人类生存的重要痕迹可以追溯到公元前三千年,而且证明公元前5世纪就有人居住于此。从公元前5世纪始,这个群岛就是热衷于宗教的修道士们的活动场所。于16世纪至19世纪期间兴建的许多教堂至今仍保存完好。

source: UNESCO/ERI

Историко-культурный комплекс Соловецких островов

Соловецкий архипелаг, располагающийся в западной части Белого моря, состоит из 6 островов общей площадью более 300 кв. км. Они были заселены в V в. до н.э., однако самые первые свидетельства пребывания здесь человека относятся к 3-2-му тысячелетиям до н.э. Острова, начиная с XV в., стали местом создания и активного развития крупнейшего на Русском Севере монастыря. Здесь также расположены несколько церквей XVI-XIX вв.

source: UNESCO/ERI

Conjunto histórico, cultural y natural de las Islas Solovetsky

Situadas en la parte occidental del mar Blanco, las seis islas del archipiélago Solovetsky suman una superficie total de 300 km². Poblado desde el quinto milenio antes de nuestra era, el archipiélago conserva vestigios importantes de un asentamiento humano que data de dos milenios después. El sitio posee varias iglesias construidas entre los siglos XVI y XIX, testigos de la presencia de las piadosas comunidades monásticas que se establecieron en las islas desde el siglo XV.

source: UNESCO/ERI

ソロヴェツキー諸島の文化と歴史遺産群

source: NFUAJ

Cultureel en historisch geheel van de Solovetsky eilanden

De Solovetsky archipel bestaat uit zes eilanden in het westelijke deel van de Witte Zee en beslaat in totaal 300 vierkante kilometer. De eilanden zijn bewoond sinds het Mesolithicum. Toen waren de weersomstandigheden gunstiger dan tegenwoordig. De Solovetsky eilanden vormen een uitstekend voorbeeld van een kloosternederzetting in de onherbergzame omgeving van Noord-Europa. Het illustreert het geloof, doorzettingsvermogen en ondernemerschap van laatmiddeleeuwse religieuze gemeenschappen. Het Solovetsky klooster werd opgericht door drie monniken in 1430 en uitgebreid in de daaropvolgende eeuwen. Hierdoor spreidde het zich niet alleen uit over de belangrijkste eilanden van de archipel, maar ook over grote stukken van het vasteland.

Source: unesco.nl

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Cultural and Historic Ensemble of the Solovetsky Islands © Jacopo
Long Description

The Solovetsky complex is an outstanding example of a monastic settlement in the inhospitable environment of northern Europe, which admirably illustrates the faith, tenacity and enterprise of late medieval religious communities.

The six islands of the Solovetsky Archipelago are in the western part of the White Sea, 290 km from Arkhangelsky. Human occupation began on the islands as early as the Mesolithic period, when the climatic conditions were more favourable than at the present day. The main prehistoric settlement period was in the 3rd millennium BC, when villages, sacred sites, and irrigation systems were built on Big Zayatsky and Anzer Islands. On the former there is a compact group of religious and funerary monuments, including 18 stone labyrinths, over 600 stone burial cairns, and several stone alignments and circles. Anzer Island has only four labyrinths and 38 cairns, disposed in three irregular rows along the sea shore. The area is of great importance to trace climatic history through changes of vegetation and variations in shorelines.

The Solovetsky Monastery was founded by three monks from the Kirillo-Belozersk and Valaam Monasteries in the 1430s. It expanded in subsequent centuries to cover not only the main islands of the archipelago, but also large stretches of land on the mainland. In 1478 it came under the protection of Novgorod State, passing subsequently to Moscow. There was a major economic reorganization in the mid-16th century, inspired by Father Superior Philip Kolichev, who built roads, founded a dairy farm, joined up series of small lakes to provide abundant fresh water, and created new industries, such as brickmaking and ceramics. He also inspired the erection of some of the major ecclesiastical monuments on the islands. A stone fortress was built in 1582-94, and Solovetsky became the economic, religious, military and cultural centre of the whole region. It was used as a place of exile and imprisonment for state criminals, but it also attracted many pilgrims. After surviving a siege by government troops in 1668-76 when the monastery revolted against the church reforms of Patriarch Nikon, the monastery continued to thrive, when many timber buildings were rebuilt in stone. The military function disappeared in 1714 with the construction of a fortress at the mouth of the Northern Dvina, but the Solovetsky fortress continued in use as a prison. Craft activities expanded into other fields (icon painting, wood carving, engraving, lithography). The detached monasteries on the smaller islands became trading outposts and trade generally increased with Russian cities, leading to improvements to the harbour and the construction of warehouses. The Makayev monastery became a botanical garden, supplying hothouse fruits to Russian cities. This ended abruptly at the Revolution, when the monastery was abolished and replaced by the 'Solovky' State Farm, in turn abolished in 1923, when the islands became camps for political and other prisoners. From 1939 to 1957 the islands were used by the navy for training. In 1967 the museum was created, and in 1990 the monastery was reinstated.

The heart of the complex is the monastery itself, on Solovetsky Island. It is in three parts, the central square with its complex of monumental buildings, and the northern and southern courtyards devoted to domestic and craft activities. The central square is flanked by the Church of the Assumption, in Novgorod style with its refectory and cellarage, the Saviour Transfiguration Cathedral, the Bell Tower (1776-77), the Church of St Nicholas (1831-33), and the Holy Trinity, Zosimus and Sabbath Cathedral (1859). The north courtyard complex includes high-quality craft buildings, including the icon workshop (1615), the tailors' and cobblers' workshops (1642), storerooms, the Father Superior's lodgings, and a 17th-century leather-dressing cellar. In the south courtyard area are a drying barn, a mill, a wash-house and a bath-house.

The Solovetsky Monastery Fortress was built in 1582-94 from boulders. It is five-sided, with a tower at each corner. The walls are 7 m thick at the base. The monastery village includes chapels built to commemorate several tsars, hostels for pilgrims, a dry dock, a hydroelectric power station, and industrial installations of various kinds. There are a number of detached monasteries: four on Solovetsky Island, the early 17th-century Trinity monastery on Anzer Island, a 16th-century complex, including a stone harbour, on Big Zayatsky Island, and the St Sergius Monastery on Big Muksalma Island, founded in the 16th century.

Source: UNESCO/CLT/WHC
Historical Description

The six islands of the Solovetskii archipelago are in the western part of the White Sea, 290 km from Arkhangelsk. They cover in total 300 sq km, Solovetskii itself accounting for 219 sq km, and the others 47.1, 19, 1.2, 1.25, and 1.1 sq km respectively.

Human occupation began on the islands as early as the Mesolithic period (5th millennium BC), when the climatic conditions were more favourable than at the present day. The main prehistoric settlement period was in the 3rd millennium BC, when villages, sacred sites, and irrigation systems were built on Big Zayatskii and Anzer Islands. On the former there is a compact group of religious and funerary monuments, including 18 stone labyrinths, over 600 stone burial cairns, and several stone alignments and circles. One of the labyrinths, over 22 m in diameter, is the largest known in the world. Anzer Island has only four labyrinths and 38 cairns, disposed in three irregular rows along the sea shore. The area is of great importance, since research on archaeological discoveries have made it possible to trace climatic history through changes of vegetation and variations in shorelines.

At the end of the warmer drier climatic episode around 1000 BC a modified version of the traditional way of life survived among the Sami and Karelia peoples throughout the Middle Ages. The Solovetskii Monastery was founded by three monks from the Kirillo- Belozersk and Valaam Monasteries in the 1430s. It expanded in subsequent centuries to cover not only the main islands of the archipelago, but also large stretches of land on the neighbouring mainland.

In 1478 the monastery came under the protection of the Novgorod State, passing subsequently to Moscow. There was a major economic reorganization in the mid-16th century, inspired by Father Superior Philip Kolichev, who built roads, founded a dairy farm, joined up series of small lakes to provide abundant fresh water, and created new industries, such as brickmaking and ceramics. He also inspired the erection of some of the major ecclesiastical monuments on the islands. A stone fortress was built in 1582-94, and in the 17th century Solovetskii became the economic, religious, military, and cultural centre of the whole region. It was used as a place of exile and imprisonment for state criminals, but it also attracted many pilgrims.

After successfully surviving a siege by Government troops in 1668-76 when the monastery revolted against the church reforms of Patriarch Nikon (a unique phenomenon in the history of the Russian Orthodox Church), the monastery continued to thrive in the 18th and 19th centuries, when many timber buildings were rebuilt in stone. The military function disappeared in 17 14 with the construction of a new fortress at the mouth of the Northern Dvina, but the Solovetskii fortress continued in use as a prison. Craft activities expanded into other fields, such as icon painting, wood carving, engraving, and lithography. The detached monasteries on the smaller islands became important trading outposts and trade generally increased with Russian cities, leading to improvements to the harbour and the construction of warehouses. The Makayev monastery was converted to a botanical garden, supplying hothouse fruits to Russian cities.

This came to an abrupt end with the Revolution, when the monastery was abolished, being replaced by the "Solovky" State Farm. That, too, was abolished in 1923, when the islands became special camps, housing political and other prisoners in wooden huts (most of which have been preserved). From 1939 to 1957 the islands were used by the Russian Navy for training purposes. In 1967 the Museum Preserve was created, and in 1990 the monastery was reinstated.

The heart of the complex is the monastery itself, on Solovetskii Island. It is in three parts, the central square with its complex of monumental buildings, and the northern and southern courtyards devoted to domestic and craft activities.

The central square is flanked by the Church of the Assumption, in Novgorod style with its refectory and cellarage (1552-57), the Saviour Transfiguration Cathedral ( 1558-66), the Bell Tower ( 1776-77), the Church of St Nicholas (183 l-33), and the Holy Trinity, Zosimus and Sabbath Cathedral (1859). The north courtyard complex includes high quality craft buildings, including the icon workshop (16 15), the tailors' and cobblers' workshops (1642). 16th and 17th century store-rooms, the 17th-19th century Father Superior's lodgings, and a 17th century leather-dressing cellar. In the south courtyard area are a late 16th century drying barn, an early 17th century mill, a 17th- 19th century wash-house, and a 19th century bath-house.

The Solovetskii Monastery Fortress was built in 1582-94 from boulders. It is five-sided, with a tower at each corner and covers over 5 ha. The walls are 7 m thick at the base.

The monastery village includes chapels built to commemorate several Tsars, hostels for pilgrims, a dry-dock, a hydroelectric power station (19 lo- 12). and industrial installations of various kinds.

There are a number of detached monasteries - four on Solovetskii Island (all 19th century), the early 17th century Trinity monastery on Anzer Island, a 16th century complex, including a stone harbour, on Big Zayatskii Island, and the St Sergius Monastery on Big Muksalma Island, founded in the 16th century.

Source: Advisory Body Evaluation