Ujung Kulon National Park
Ujung Kulon National Park
This national park, located in the extreme south-western tip of Java on the Sunda shelf, includes the Ujung Kulon peninsula and several offshore islands and encompasses the natural reserve of Krakatoa. In addition to its natural beauty and geological interest – particularly for the study of inland volcanoes – it contains the largest remaining area of lowland rainforests in the Java plain. Several species of endangered plants and animals can be found there, the Javan rhinoceros being the most seriously under threat.
Parc national de Ujung Kulon
Le parc national, situé à l'extrémité sud-ouest de Java en bordure du détroit de la Sonde, englobe la péninsule d'Ujung Kulon et plusieurs îles, et il comprend la réserve naturelle du Krakatoa. Outre sa beauté naturelle et son intérêt géologique, notamment pour l'étude du volcanisme insulaire, il contient la plus grande superficie restante de forêts pluviales de plaine de Java. Il abrite plusieurs espèces végétales et animales menacées, dont la plus menacée de toutes, le rhinocéros de Java.
المنتزه الوطني في أوجونغ كولون
يضمّ المنتزه الوطني الذي يقع على طرف جافا الجنوبي الغربي على ضفاف مضيق "لاصوند" شبه جزيرة "أوجونغ كولون" وجزرًا كثيرة، ويشمل محمية "كراكاتوا" الطبيعية. وإلى جانب جمال طبيعته وأهميته الجيولوجية، لا سيما لدراسة حركة البراكين في الجزر، يشتمل المنتزه على المساحة الأكبر المتبقية من الغابات المطرية في سهل جافا. ويؤوي أجناسًا نباتية وحيوانية كثيرة معرضة للانقراض، وأكثرها تعرضًا على الإطلاق وحيد قرن جافا.
Национальный парк Уджунг-Кулон и вулкан Кракатау
Национальный парк, расположенный на крайней юго-западной оконечности острова Ява в районе Зондского пролива. Он включает полуостров Уджунг-Кулон и несколько прибрежных островов, в т.ч. группу островов Кракатау. Местность выделяется особенной живописностью, представляет большой геологический интерес и дает возможность изучения островных вулканов. Здесь сосредоточены самые значительные массивы низкогорных влажно-тропических лесов из всех, уцелевших в равнинной части Явы. В парке имеют место представители нескольких исчезающих видов растений и животных. В т.ч. это находящийся под угрозой исчезновения яванский носорог.
Parque nacional de Ujung Kulon
Situado en el extremo sudoccidental de Java, a orillas del estrecho de la Sonda, este parque abarca la península de Ujung Kolon y varias islas, así como la reserva natural de Krakatoa. Además de su belleza natural e interés geológico para el estudio del vulcanismo insular, el parque cuenta con la zona más extensa de bosques lluviosos de tierras bajas que queda en Java. También alberga diversas especies vegetales y animales en peligro de extinción, en particular el rinoceronte de Java.
Nationaal park Ujung Kulon
Dit nationale park in het uiterste zuidwestelijke puntje van Java op de Sunda klip, omvat het Ujung Kulon schiereiland, een aantal eilanden voor de kust en het natuurreservaat van Krakatoa. Naast zijn natuurlijke schoonheid en geologisch belang - in het bijzonder voor de studie van vulkanen - bevat het park het grootste resterende gebied van laaglandregenwouden op de Java vlakte. Er zijn verschillende soorten bedreigde planten en dieren te vinden, waarvan de Javaanse neushoorn het meest ernstig met uitsterven wordt bedreigd. De vegetatie is onderworpen aan een aantal antropogene en natuurlijke veranderingen. De meest opvallende is de vulkaanuitbarsting van de Krakatau in 1883 geweest, waardoor slechts zo'n 50% van het gebied bedekt is met regenwoud.
Outstanding Universal Value
Ujung Kulon National Park, located in Banten Province on the extreme south-west tip of the highly populated island of Java, has the best and most extensive lowland forest remaining on the island. The property, including the Ujung Kulon peninsula and several offshore islands retains its natural beauty and possesses a very diverse flora and fauna, demonstrating on-going evolution of geological processes since the Krakatau eruption in 1883. The Krakatau volcano as part of the formation of the property, is the most well known and studied of all modern volcanic eruptions, due primarily to the devastating effects (36,000 people killed) registered throughout the northern hemisphere. The property is globally significant as the last and most important natural habitat of the critically endangered, endemic, single-horned Javan Rhinoceros (Rhinoceros sondaicus) along with several other species of endangered plants and animals. Ujung Kulon is believed to sustain the last viable natural population of this species, estimated at approximately 60 individuals. It is not known how this compares to historical densities, but is a critically low figure from the point of view of species survival and viable genetic diversity.Other notable mammals in the property include carnivores, such as leopard, wild dog (dhole), leopard cat, fishing cat, Javan mongoose and several species of civets. It is also home to three endemic primate species; the Javan gibbon, Javan leaf monkey and silvered leaf monkey. Over 270 species of birds have been recorded and terrestrial reptiles and amphibians include two species of python, two crocodile species and numerous frogs and toads.
Criterion (vii) : Krakatau is one of natural world’s best-known examples of recent island volcanism and the property with its forests, coastline and islands is a natural lanscape of high scenic attaction. The physical feature of Krakatau Island combined with the surrounding sea, natural vegetation, succesion of vegetation and volcanic activities combine to form a lanscape of exceptional beauty. In addition, the combination of natural vegetation of the lowlands, tropical rainforests, grass lands, beach forests, mangrove forests and coral reefs within the property, are of exceptional magnificence. The property includes the Ujung Kulon peninsula and several offshore islands that demonstate on-going evolutionary processes, especially following the dramatic Krakatau eruption in 1883.
Criterion (x) : Containing the most extensive remaining stand of lowland rainforest on Java, a habitat that has virtually disappeared elsewhere on the island and is under severe pressure elsewhere in Indonesia and Southeast Asia, the peninsula of Ujung Kulon provides invaluable habitat critical for the survival of a number of threatened plant and animal species, most notably the endangered Javan Rhino (Rhinoceros sondaicus). The Javan rhino is not known to occur in the wild anywhere else on earth and Ujung Kulon is believed to sustain the last viable natural population, estimated at approximately 60 individuals. Efforts to protect the Javan rhino’s remaining habitat and individuals have become a symbol for protection of rainforest of worldwide significance, adding to the international importance of the management and preservation of the Ujung Kulon ecosystem.The property also provides a valuable refuge for 29 other species of mammals; nine of which are on the IUCN red list with three species considered endangered and including leopard (Panthera pardus), the endemic Javan gibbon (Mylobates moloch) and Javan leaf monkey (Presbytis comata). Avifauna recorded within the property includes 270 species while two species of crocodile, the endangered false gharial (Tomistoma schlegelii) and the vulnerable estuarine crocodile (Crocodylus porosus) are included in the reptile and amphibian species recorded for the property. In addition to the rich fauna 57 species of rare plants have also been recorded.
The oldest and largest of the protected areas on the island of Java the boundary of the property encloses a very large area that is sufficient to protect its outstanding scenic, natural values as well as the important biodiversity values that warranted inscription on the World Heritage List. The huge volcanic mass of Krakatau dominates the property and is completely contained within its boundaries.
The property contains all the necessary habitat for the in-situ conservation of its unique biological diversity, including those habitats required to support the threatened species and other biota of outstanding universal value. While it is no longer possible to increase the size of the property, its location, in particular on the peninsula, provides managers with an ideal geographic unit for management.
A number of the component areas of the property are surrounded by buffer zones with activities in the zone given increasing attention in regards to regulation from the relevant provincial authority, with advice from the management agency. Poaching of the Javan Rhino has always been the main management issue and careful monitoring is required to ensure there is no illegal poaching of this critically endagered species as well as the other unique biodiversity contained and protected within the property.
Protection and management requirements
The property is managed by the central goverment through the technical implementation unit of the Directorate General of Forest Protection and Nature Conservation, of the Ministry of Forestry. The peninsula, along with Pulau Panaitan were established as a nature reserve in 1921 and subsequently redesignated as a game reserve and extended in 1958 to include several offshore islands and marine areas. The mainland component of the property was established as a nature reserve in 1967 and the Ujung Kulon reserve complex was declared a ‘proposed’ national park in 1980 with the Krakatau Nature Reserve included into the site in 1983.
The long history of conservation action in the property, dating back to 1921, has helped to protect the values contained within the boundaries despite the lack of a solid legal basis during the early establishment of the reserves. The long term management plan of Ujung Kulon National Park (2001-2020) is the basis for maintaining its natural beauty and preserving the critical habitats. Implementation of the management plan has helped to control the problems of illegal encroachment, logging, and commercial fishing within the boundaries of the property. The buffer zone on the land boundary effectively strengthens protection of the property and in addition, the involvement of various stakeholders from the local, national and international community has enhanced the protection of its values and integrity.
Generally well preserved, encroachment pressures are primarily confined to the eastern boundary on the mainland. Management prioritises long-term survival of the Javan Rhinoceros along with the other endangered species recorded within the property. The Strategy and Action Plan for the Conservation of Rhinos in Indonesia (2007-2017) developed with broad, open, and transparent participatory processes has greatly assisted the future survival of this critically endangered animal. The strategy addresses threats from inbreeding, global warming, and human pressure and includes the development of a new sanctuary within the property and a site outside the property as additional habitat for rhino populations.
Poaching of the Javan rhino has historically been the main management issue within the property. Strengthening of protection through management actions has allowed the population to grow with the highest priority of conservation efforts being the in situ preservation of the population, allowing numbers to increase. Increasing pressure from agricultural encroachment, illegal logging and firewood collection in the terrestrial areas and illegal commercial fishing within the marine components of the park continue to pose a threat to the values of the property. Along with impacts from tourism these issues all require monitoring and enforcement of regulations to ensure long-term conservation of the property.
Ujung Kulon National Park lies on the extreme south-western tip of Java within the administrative province of Java Barat (West Java) and the Kebupaten of Pandeglang.
Ujung Kulon is a triangular peninsula protruding from the south-west extremity of mainland Java, to which it is joined by a low isthmus some 1-2 km wide. The topography is dominated in the south-west by the three north-south aligned ridges of the Gunung Payung massif, with the peaks of Gunung Payung, Gunung Guhabendang and Gunung Cikuja forming the highest points on the peninsula. To the north-east, the relief attenuates to the low rolling hills and plains of the Telanca Plateau, and ultimately to the low-lying swamps in the region of the isthmus. To the east, the Gunung Honje massif forms the mainland component of the park. Coastal formations include a number of raised coral islands and their associated fringing reefs which lie off the northern coast of the peninsula, the largest of these being Pulau Handeuleum. To the south, the coastline is characterized by sand dune formations, areas of raised coral reef, and further west a long stretch of undermined and shattered sandstone slabs. Extensive coral reefs and spectacular volcanic formations occur along the exposed and broken west coast.
Geologically, Ujung Kulon, Gunung Honje and Pulau Panaitan are part of a young Tertiary mountain system, which overlies the pre-Tertiary strata of the Sunda Shelf. Lying on the edge of the tectonically active Sunda Shelf, Krakatau Nature Reserve comprises the central island of Anak Krakatau (child of Krakatau), and the peripheral islands of Rakata, Payang and Sertung with their surrounding coral reefs. These peripheral islands form the remnants of a single volcano ('Ancient Krakatau') which exploded and collapsed some 1,500 years ago leaving three remnant cones.
Vegetation has been subject to a number of anthropogenic and natural modifications, of which the most notable is the Krakatau eruption of 1883. As a result, primary lowland rainforest, the natural vegetation cover, now occupies only 50% of the total area, being largely confined to the Gunung Payung and Honje massifs.
A tall closed canopy forest occurs on Gunung Payung, on Pulau Peucang; vegetation of the Telanca Plateau and central lowlands is a more open secondary forest. Occurring along the northern promontory of Ujung Kulon near Tanjung, alang-alang is a seasonally inundated freshwater swamp forest. Mangrove forest occurs in a broad belt along the northern side of the isthmus, extending northwards as far as the Cikalong River, as well as to the north of Pulau Handeuleum and on the north-east coast of Pulau Panaitan. Beach forest occurs on nutrient-poor sandy ridges on the north and north-west coasts of Ujung Kulon.
Ujung Kulon is the last remaining viable natural refuge for Javan rhinoceros; Javan tiger was locally extirpated about 40 years ago. Other notable mammals include carnivores, such as leopard, wild dog (dhole), leopard cat, fishing cat, Javan mongoose and several civets. Of the primates, the endemic species Javan gibbon and Javan leaf monkey occur locally along with the endemic silvered leaf monkey, while crab-eating macaque is found throughout the park. Several ungulates range within the park, of which the largest and most abundant is banteng. A rich avifauna is present with over 270 species recorded. Terrestrial reptiles and amphibians include two species of python, as well as two crocodiles and numerous frogs and toads. Green turtle is known to nest within the park.
The rich coral reefs of the Ujung Kulon coast are dominated by a small number of species that make up some 90% of the coral mass; the marine areas of Ujung Kulon support some of the richest fish fauna in the archipelago, with both deep water and reef species well represented.
Pulau Panaitan has a Ganesha statue on the summit of Mount Raksa, an early Hindu archaeological relic from the 1st century AD, and the island is thought to have been an important staging post for sailing ships passing through the Sunda Straits. Captain James Cook is known to have anchored HMS Endeavour on the south-eastern side of Panaitan Island from 6-16 January 1771.Source: UNESCO/CLT/WHC
Pulau Panaitan/Pulau Peucang Nature Reserve was established in 1937 under Decree No. GB/17/Stb1/420, Ujung Kulon Nature Reserve in 1958 under Decree No. 48/kpts/Um/4/58 and Gunung Honje Nature Reserve established in 1967. The complex was declared a national park in 1980. Krakatau was notified as a nature reserve in 1921 and incorporated within the national park in 1983.Source: Advisory Body Evaluation